THE BOOK – Prevention of Floods and Erosion











The present book is a revised updated and enriched with an earlier text entitled “Modern Techniques of Accommodation Soil” by pubblicatomi Edagricole in 1969 and 73 in the second edition, the copies were all sold.

In this version I added the Chapter II “The works of prevention from sudden floods to build in flood plains, and other sections such as dredging of river beds and streams, Techniques of Bioengineering, jobs and jobs Ripping drainage and subsurface drainage of land suffering from excessive moisture.

The recent climate change marked by an increase in torrential rains, short-term, but repeated throughout the day, causing more frequent floods and sudden floods, to avoid you can make prevention work described in this paper.

In addition to the public in general, I turn to agricultural operators, technicians, Schools and the University of Agriculture, politicians, and the technical and the administrative managers of the Soil of local and national governments, of the Reclamation , of the Reclamation Montani, the Departments of Agriculture and Forests, River Basin Authorities, Trade Associations operating in the municipalities and provinces most affected by erosion and floods in recent years.

I believe this useful also for technicians FAO and national and international non-governmental organizations that have as their goal the assistance of agricultural workers in the developing countries. Recently, the states that have been affected most by the floods and flash floods were over Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Turkey, Mozambique, Algeria, China, Bangladesh, the Czech Republic, Russia, …



I thank for their collaboration designers: Umberto Lombardo, Joseph of Havet, Marcello Rosa, translator Elena Sturiale who ordered and oversaw the drafting of the text and the technician David Laureti who has paginated text and figures inserting the CD ROM with Word

Scholar of the territorial Introduction to this edition

The works of prevention and flood defense and the violent floods are valid and functional torrential rains and short-lived, even for long-lasting rains, provided they are interrupted and interspersed with periods of no rainfall, necessary for the emptying of the reservoirs and settling tanks and rolling.

We are studying and being tested the use of existing tunnels below the ridge lines for the retention upstream surface water flow during heavy rainfall and their storage for periods of drought.

It ‘also possible to avoid the flooding of cellars of apartment buildings and industrial to heavy rainfall and short-lived, if they are made previously the flooding, tanks underground impermeable concrete, below the level of the floor of the same wineries; inside the tanks should be placed submersible pumps, which are filled in automatically drain the rainwater excess revenue in the short term of rain intense. Such work is called system Regurgitation Sewer.

For areas downstream in the river sub-basins have added since the last edition of the “Works and Techniques for soil protection terminal, Chapter II, p. 73, in particular the canals and ditches spillways, reservoirs expansion and dredging works, and these works are effective with any type of rain, as long as they are proportionate in size to the highest levels reached by the waters from swollen rivers in the previous floods, in the design of flood defense works to be carried out abroad will be useful for comparative technical drawing comparisons with the works that have been carried out in large river basins Italians, particularly those carried out in the Po basin




Failure to Inform of the mass media on the works of soil conservation


Unlike what has been done in some countries like the United States of America, Israel, Australia, etc.., In Italy and in most of the countries that are hit by floods periodically, there is propaganda and a consistent and accurate disclosure on renovation of the arable land for flood prevention, by erosion and subsurface waterlogging.

By the flood of Florence in ’66 and all those others that almost every year devastate several areas, such as sub-basin overlooking Genoa, to date, has not yet been realized in full the works and the works of the accommodation ground on entire sub-basins for the prevention of floods.

Most of the work was done on streams, while much less expensive works should be carried out upstream, that is, on land placed immediately below the ridge lines (1), and these jobs require organizational structures capillaries on the hill, mountain and plains for their realization and especially for their maintenance, which we define Districts for soil conservation.

Some works of control of fast flowing streams, such as the thresholds of cement on the beds of rivers to slow the flow of current, the deepening and widening of the beds of rivers and embankments, have proved useful, while other works, such as the concreting of the banks and the straightening of rivers have proved harmful. The cementing of the banks, in fact, prevent the development of flora and vegetation and prevent the worsening over time of sharp bends (known as bends) due to the erosion of natural water courses, useful for slowing down the stream.

In Germany, before the last world war, had begun to rectify the sinuous waterways to retrieve and prepare the ground, close to the banks, fields in rectangular geometric figure, but later had to quickly restore the courses ‘original water: in fact, during rainfall intensity and duration than average, ground strokes occurred in the serious damage caused by the increase speed of river water.


Concrete slabs of the beds of rivers and streams


Otherwise, the lifting of the beds of rivers by thresholds in cement transverse to the current direction, serve to reduce the speed of the current itself; constructed downstream of the bridges, these serve to reduce the erosive capacity of the current against the piers of the old bridges, as has been validly performed downstream of the Milvian Bridge on the Tiber river bed; downstream of the bridge can be seen in periods of low water 2 small falls apart at the center in order to move the boats.


Widening and deepening of river beds

Between the years 60 and 70 along the river Arrochar, the emissary of Lake Bracciano, adjacent to a short stretch of land with my property, the engineers of the Reclamation Consortium of the Roman they provided to eliminate the banks, in order to recover large tracts of land is very fertile, and brought deepen the river bed leaning on the tufa rock quite resistant to erosion by run, but for now the results are satisfactory, except for some short sections that require protection to prevent or sgrottamento plants such as reeds or cages filled with stones, and the waters do not come out in the neighboring fields for over forty years, since the capacity of flooded with the deepening and widening of the bed has been greatly increased.

Serious erosion and landslides in many circumstances are due both to the lack of implementation and maintenance of hydraulic and agricultural works, both at work incorrect on hill slopes to steep slopes ranging prohibited by law clearer and more severe.

For large landslide geological impermiabilizzazione be experienced in the greenhouses no higher than 1.5 meters above the ground area subject to landslide, accompanied by the division of runoff of roofs with a capillary channel transverse to the line of maximum slope and from rain collectors parallel to the slope line, appropriately spaced.


Importance of radio and television programs and documentaries


The main duties of the Directors of private radio-television networks and RAI / TV will be very important to include in the schedules a greater number of documentaries on the techniques of accommodation and cultivation of the soil and the hydraulic and agricultural works, and specific news weekly in the evening news on the works of soil conservation.

The documentary videotape on the work achieved by modern agricultural machinery such as bulldozers, graders, excavators, such as on the work of environmental engineering, Educational material are that it can be sold both to industrialized countries that have not updated the techniques of soil that countries in development.

Even the books that deal with hydraulic and agricultural works, such as documentary films, there are very few compared to the books and documentaries on the natural sciences and the world of animals and plants, of this serious and inexplicable gap probably the cause lies in the fact that these items missing in curricula and textbooks of all levels. Exceptions (in part) the U.S., where since the ’50s in the first grade spellers of different states of the Union, to the letter “S” stands for the word Soil, and the letter “C” is the word Conservation. In some U.S. states, if they had not taken drastic measures to prevent erosion due to water and wind, many regions would desertified as in part has happened to Texas and Arizona.


Organization of Rural Districts


The Rural Districts, which are established by law and school sites located in rural, regional bodies are comparable to the Industrial Districts and are designed in collaboration with the Consortium of Reclamation to build and maintain the hydraulic works of agricultural and forest soil conservation.


They are partially autonomous territorial units resulting from large subdivision for the Reclamation, or coincident with the current Land Reclamation Consortia Montani, may have their homes as well as in Rural Schools, in the municipalities of Rural Municipalities, the premises of Rural Cooperatives; must be equipped small libraries and newspaper libraries that collections of books, magazines, and documentaries that deal with the Spatial Planning and matters of policy and technical agricultural (3), in these new regional bodies farm operators directly or through representatives must be able to participate with the present leaders of the Reclamation program implementation and maintenance of the Works


Hydraulic Agriculture and Forestry.


The Rural Districts may also coincide with the Sectors to Watch in the Regulations on the Protection of the hydraulic works of first and second class and the reclamation approved by Royal Decree December 1937 n. 2669 which states:

Article 1 “… i like the reclamation are divided into the areas of supervision and, if necessary every area of ​​supervision can be divided into sectors guard.

The trunks and the branches of supervision officers are responsible for plumbers, to the trunks and the branches of hydraulic guard the guardians. ”

Article 3 “… If the officer is assigned to the hydraulic remediation services must patrol a portion of its sector according to the provisions above – Basin Authority with the obligation to visit the entire area every week.”

Every small or large artificial lake before the start of the rainy season and then to cessation of rain must be emptied of all whether it is a pond or reservoir tank rolling in part if it is invaded for fishing or for ‘ irrigation.

Interventions such as the application of the constraints of non-arabilità the slopes to steep slopes, reforestation, plant rows of trees, soil conservation works shall be implemented for the entire surface of the sub-basins (4).

The defense of the soil and consequent settlement of landis achieved through successive stages and in different ways which will be discussed below.

(1) The ridge lines are the lines connecting the tops and the tops of the mountains and hills, and therefore divide the ranges of hills and mountains in the two sides.

2) Over the years the stream of water at the entrance of some hairpin turns has caused small landslides of the banks: it would take action to stop the phenomenon of environmental engineering (see p. 69).

(3) Libraries-newspaper libraries are collections of books and magazines respectively specially chosen for agricultural workers and their families, these small libraries should be placed in rural schools with access in the evening hours and possibly on holidays with the help of volunteers .

In addition to schools, other buildings to be used in place of part libraries-newspaper libraries might be a few rooms of the municipalities. To vacate these rooms, vital records and books of accounts should be filmed and miniaturized or computer and moved elsewhere. Such spaces may also become venues for the meetings of the Consortium of Rural Districts.

4) The sub-areas are defined precisely by the lines of watershed and they incorporate the watershed lines or flat areas, there are flat areas of the valley in the smaller sub-basins, namely those formed by only two sides and a plain in the middle, or a small stream. Like Chinese boxes, sub smaller sub-basins are contained by larger, content themselves from large river basins such as the Nile, the Po, Tiber, etc..






Works by preventing erosion, landslides and floods Stabilization

As the saying the same word, it is to prevent the soil from moving. The land can collapse and be eroded. The works of stabilization tend to eliminate the possibility of landslides and erosion. Landslide and erosion are due to the lack of discipline of the waters.

The erosions are not man-made phenomena which fall within the laws of nature, occur in long periods and are responsive to a number of natural balances.

Unlike the erosion and small landslides that occur in soils badly I raised, cleared, or subject to overgrazing are quick and combine to cause the disasters of floods.




The deep landslides, those whose slip plane is in the tens of meters deep can be inevitable. We can intervene with agricultural technicians to geologists in denouncing the rangers and other law enforcement agencies so that they prohibit more severely criminal practices such as indiscriminate logging, grazing irrational, deep plowing of slopes unprecedented sistematorie works such as terracing, etc.., practices that often are the first causes of large landslides . In any case, the argument of the large landslides is too complex and can not be treated in this volume.

We take care of “landslides” and “Scucchiaiate” of earth.


These landslides can occur when the surface layer of soil rests on a layer on which clayey subsurface may slip. This happens, for example, in the hills of alternating layers of sand and clay. The water passes through the sand with ease, especially when it has been processed and is not evil weed, while passing through the clay layer below with much difficulty or even does not pass. When the water, through the layer of sand, arrives on the layer of clay is a plan “lubricated” along which slippage can occur. On a plane lubricated by water, occur the “landslides” and “Scucchiaiate” of earth. You can work to prevent these shallow landslides: we will see in the course of these brief notes.

The landslides may be due to “scalzamenti the foot “: If for any reason (for example, the water erodes the bottom, or the creation of an excavation without taking the proper precautions), it lacks the support surface, the terrain landslide.

The areas subject to landslides are bounded so as to be lapped by the waters zenithal sun and not from the water surrounding the scroll. We will see later the criteria and ways to isolate certain areas of soil from the surrounding waters.

You can also grassy bare walls already collapsed in order to prevent further landslides and erosion with bioengineering techniques that we will see on page 20-69.



The erosion


Understand how it is the erosion is a fact that is intuitive, the water flows over the ground, carries it with him when quantity and speed are above the soil resistance to dragging. The millenary erosion is a positive, beneficial. Eroded soil in steep areas, it is dragged into the rivers, which, in valleys in which there have been no specific works out dall’alveo, deposit the material and silt and consequently gave rise to the floodplains and the simultaneous fertilization of the fields as they did in the Nile valley before it was built the great dam Aswan.

Otherwise, the rapid erosion that occurs in hilly and mountainous terrain cultivated, and those newly deforested and reforestation, without that in recent works are made of soil conservation, is a negative and serious, which must be prevented or at least hindered.

To stabilize the soil must be done so that the amount and speed of the water is not liable to carry the ground, then we must increase the absorption capacity of soils through afforestation and grassing of the work according to the techniques of bioengineering, and by the works of soil protection by splitting the waters and slowing their descent to the valley starting with the mountain basins.

Fig 1. – Note the complete removal of the humus layer and the bedrock


Fig 2. – The same damage seen from a different perspective


Mountain basins

For mountain basin means the upper part of the catchment area of ​​a river and its tributaries: the current Italian legislation divides land reclamation mountain (in some cases replaced the mountain communities) by consortia of plain with reference to the relative height of the land included in such and such a level was set at 600 meters above sea level and therefore to 600 meters above sea level you have the consortia mountain, below those of the plains: Emilia Romagna in the two types have been unified to better coordinate the work of accommodation and soil.

The basic rule for the accommodation of river basins as a whole is to start operations at the top below the line of the watershed begin to occur where erosion and landslides, as it works on soil protection in the plains are generally not sufficient to prevent and reduce flood damage.

To increase the absorption of rainwater and reduce erosion, in addition to reforestation, difficult to achieve along the slopes dissestate, you can use techniques for bioengineering reconstitute the grassing: one of these techniques which can be observed in going highway along the walls cut to achieve the lanes, is to insert files of wooden stakes of chestnut and weave together with bushes of reeds at suitable distances, with l ‘insemination of specific essences and the planting of cuttings of shrubs grown in nurseries.

The transported downstream due to erosion on a steep slope can vary from a bare soil to a ground protected by a plant cover in a ratio of 500:

Fig 3. and 4. Eroded areas: Visible gullies caused by ‘export of vegetation cover, it is possible with the techniques of defense to prevent further soil erosion and enlargement of existing ones.


Fig 5. Planting of trees and other plant species adapted to stop the move of the dunes because of the wind. Part of the desert can be transformed into arable land and this transformation is also useful to reverse the process of desertification.


The bridle


The bridles are of two types: a) in masonry and b) in compressed earth.


a) The bridle masonry are much smaller than those burying compressed, and are being built across the river beds of ditches and streams and can be dry masonry, mixed masonry of stone and wood, wood and mortar; prevent corrosion, excessive deepening of river beds and thus the potential landslide of the side rails of the same. Can not exceed 3 meters in height and shall be constructed spaced from each other depending on the compensation profiles that are to be obtained. Practically, we build artificially small waterfalls in doing so that the coarse material eroded stops behind the bridle and consequently the riverbeds tend to expand and the speed of descent of the water downstream between a bridle and the other is slowed down and does not cause the ‘erosion at the foot of the slopes bordering the waterways.

b) The bridle in compressed earth are those for the construction of reservoir lakes, ponds and reservoirs for irrigation expansion.


Technical execution of the bridle or weirs or dams in compressed earth

The construction of the dam or weir in compressed earth is preceded by the excavation of the trench or container that serves to anchor the soil and the same barrier to the establishment and interruption of any spring of water in the construction of the dam itself.

The land is taken starting from the rear with respect to the upstream-downstream direction perpendicular to the semicircle of the dam is to be achieved and on the side farthest from the previously calculated with respect to the technical capacity that invaded by the barring you want to get.

With the pick up and the movement of earth mounds on the bin, ie on the basis of the dam has automatically the compression of the inner wall of the dam itself.

To achieve the greater stability of the future dam is appropriate for the terrain, to move and pile up on the same, is compressed and leveled layer by layer.


Fig 6. – 1) Bridle, 2) Cassonetto, note the horizontality of the same, and 3) Siphon drain. The dam must be in temperature and humidity that is average, neither too wet nor too dry, otherwise you do not have a uniform compression of the layers. If the soil is too dry, it may get wet artificially until reaching the right humidity and this involves higher costs of construction.

The section of the dam is irregular trapezoid, the parameter has an inclination different from upstream to downstream; generally, parameter upstream 1: 2.5, parameter Valley 1: 1.5.

If the percentage of clay soil used for the construction is high, the parameters of slope increase and become respectively 1: 3 and 1: 2, the width of the ridge or top must not be less than 3 meters, is to have an average width sufficiently large to retain the water of the reservoir , is to make possible the uniform compression of the same ridge through the different steps of tracked tractors medium-sized.

Fig 7. Watershed and lake hills

For each series of mounds of earth carried in the box starting with the first series, it is essential, again, for keeping the dam next, scraping and uniform compression after leveling, filling them with earth, any depressions that can form in the course of the work, each layer must be flat and compressed into

evenly until reaching the crest or top that will be slightly inclined towards the slope of the mountain. After the first rains can be verified on the crest of the rifts that will be closed with more compacted soil even with just small mechanical tools, such as skid steer loaders, as well as with hand tools such as the hoe and shovel. To avoid these small cracks, even those that can be formed on the outer slope of the valley, it would be advantageous to line the ridge and slope of the valley with grass sods, or manually sminarvi The specific essences grass grassing of these two parts of the dam makes it more difficult to form of slits, it is appropriate to consider the periodic mowing with brush cutters with manual 2-stroke spark ignition engines, at least twice a year, and it is necessary to control continuous and timely any holes opened by otters or water voles as runs in the Netherlands for compressed or compacted earth dams that protect the land, situated below the sea level, the invasion of sea water.

Figure 9. – Operation of compression of the embankment


Fig 10. – Types of spillway

The compressed earth dams can be built with different agricultural and industrial machines, the fundamental one is the dozer blade with front hydraulic lift. Using also the mechanical shovels for moving series of piles of earth, but, for each series of mounds of earth superimposed, it is preferable for the intervention dell’apripista scraping and subsequent compression. In the absence of rollers for uniform compression, simply the passage repeated several times of crawlers dell’apripista insist, layer by layer, the entire surface of each overlapping layer in construction of the dam.

If the job is paid to size and not by the hour, the technician will check that the responsible cubic meters of earth over the dam are properly compressed, otherwise the risk of landslides and subsidence of the dam itself are inevitable.




After the dam, you have to open the spillway to prevent rain water spills over the dam, spillways through the water comes out before reaching the top level of the dam guard. There must be a fair difference between the share of the bottom of the spillway and the height of the dam, on average, 1 meter or the amplitude of the spillways must be such as to avoid that, during the very intense rainfall and generally of short duration, they completely fill the reservoirs and tracimino beyond the top of the weir.

You can do one or two overflow spillways to the two sides of the dam, but the spillway should not be central you should try to let the water flow in overrun on the part of the solid earth and this is possible because with the dozer blade must cut into the slope of the hill side, little far from where the embankment of the dam begins

And ‘generally important to protect the walls of the spillway pipe with a suitable cross section. To avoid risk of undermining the spillway must be protected with rocks or with tufa blocks, or bricks and mortar, which is the entrance to the outlet, the outlet of the outlet, the strip of land must be protected with half-pipes or tavelline of adequate size, as seen on the slopes bordering the highways.


Completion of the dam

The tubes of the spillway to be covered with earth up to the top of the dam, the top of the dam itself must be at least 4 meters and must be tilted slightly upstream, ie towards the reservoir. A slight inclination of the terminal is sufficient for the rainwater that falls on the bridle go in the pond that was built upstream and downstream along the escarpment. To protect the slope of the valley, if you do not want to spend on grass sods overlay, you must, I repeat, sow alfalfa, clover, oats, or other essences to taproot. The small erosions that are formed on the slope during the first rains are inevitable but do not constitute any danger and happened on turfing, stop forming.


Dimensions of weirs or dams in compressed earth

The dams in compressed earth may be long as you want: the length is not dangerous. The height to realize the many small reservoirs upstream required to hold the heavy downpours of short duration, it is good that does not exceed 4-6 meters, and it is recommended that another barrier of protection below the dam downstream Major transverse to the line of watershed, for a possible overflow of the first barrier. If the heights of these dams do not exceed 6 meters, the water pressure is limited, and if it were built

with soil of medium texture and medium humidity, the dangers of failure are almost null. For loam soil means that it is neither totally nor totally sand clay. If below the first surface layer there is no soil of this type, it is necessary to go and load more away from the place where it wishes to build a small dam, and in this case the costs will be higher


Maintenance of dams and spillways I emphasize and repeat the above that the need for periodic check-ups at least twice a year, in order to perform maintenance work principally to close cracks on the top of the embankment and holes opened by nutria and other rodents. In addition, care must be taken that the entrance to the spillways water does not creep side of or below the pipe, if this is the spillway and the dam collapses is cut where the water flows. For the bridle or dams that are built to achieve lakes reservoir for the lengthening of the time of concentration, that is the time that rainwater takes


you get to the waterways of the valley, and artificial ponds for irrigation is necessary to verify that the slopes of the hills overlooking the reservoir and the bridle in compressed earth are stable and that is not subject to erosion, otherwise it is necessary stabilize with reforestation, with rows of trees were planted on the containment transverse to the line of maximum slope, with terraces or in defense.

Measures the barriers in compressed earth for the construction of artificial lakes and ponds tank and large reservoirs

The reservoir lakes in particular, ponds and artificial lakes created for other purposes in addition to flood control, as well as major reservoirs for hydropower production, during the seasons of intense rainfall in our climate, autumn, must be able to have the maximum capacity of the upstream reservoir to hold the water from the torrential rains and will thus be emptied as far as possible, consistent with the need to produce electricity or to allow the downstream irrigation

Fig.13. Ponds tanks: partial plan sub-basin; dams in succession to the retention of water in the lakes upstream reservoir

Fig 14. 1) Spillway in cement pipes, 2) Siphon drain.


Emptying of ponds

Both ponds for irrigation and for sport fishing, both the reservoir ponds are emptied at least in part, from time to time, in the times of year when there are more risks of flooding, the cessation of all torrential rain in our climate never lasts more than a few hours, and the most simple system is to connect a hose or more than one, of the section of 10 – 20 cm, which spans the top of the detected and that one part falls inside the reservoir to the greater depth as possible and on the other, over the escarpment of the valley and is fitted at the end of a small pump can suck air and water. Once you have finished – for small reservoirs can also manually trigger the siphon tube – are able to hold more water rain of a subsequent torrential rain, otherwise if the water coming out of the torrential rains flooded there is already full risk of overtopping and in any case no longer fulfill the function of preventing rainwater arrives too quickly to the beds of waterways downstream of these reservoirs.

Fig 15. – Pond reservoir

To control the levels of major reservoirs and for the periodic emptying the cessation of rain, the guards of the Forest and the technicians of the Reclamation must be able to use helicopters and military aircraft. It is also necessary, in the months of greatest risk of flooding, adequate information – for a period of a few minutes at the end of radio and television public service on the road – that shows at a glance what needs to be done to protect the soil, as empty the tank ponds and keep all the other partially empty reservoirs.


Concluding remarks of dams and artificial lakes,

If the electricity production of large dams during periods of flood risk becomes a fact and it must be subordinate, these reservoirs can be of great use to prevent flooding. It ‘important that during summer-autumn these reservoirs are semi-hollow for the regulation of the flood wave, and this adjustment should be made by an inter-which, as indicated above, will have to use helicopters and military aircraft are essential for orders evacuation and partial emptying, and the control of the execution of such orders against the owners of the land where they built artificial lakes and dams. For small and medium ponds, emptying, I repeat, is carried out through automatic siphoning systems by means of special pumps or manual emptying by means of suitable plastic pipes with a diameter of 80 – 100 MM – one end of the tube should be immersed in the pond water and the other outside over the escarpment in the valley of compressed earth and – being invaded in many sub-basins should be organized air service (possibly military) with the Forest Service to Provide technicians with helicopters bring to the reservoirs 2 workers who will provide the emptying of all reservoirs to the termination of each period of heavy rain, without falling into the grave mistake of opening the large reservoirs simultaneously to the passage of the flood wave as seems to have happened in the flood that hit Florence in ’66.

How will explain in the next chapter, you can also intervene downstream floodplains, before the rivers cross the city or other manufactured goods and agricultural products, by means of the expansion basins and ditches spillways.

The artificial water collection, the terraces in countur and containment was also fulfill another function of exceptional importance for the Water Management of the Apennines and other similar ranges of hills and mountains, which is to contribute remarkable to replenish ground water, poor during the summer, and thus contribute to an enlarged sources located downstream of the same reservoirs.


Defenses – terraces

A “defense” can be likened to a small road to “halfway” that runs along a line slightly angled with respect to a level curve, but the main purpose is not the transit, the “defense” interrupts diverting it across the path that the surface rainwater run downhill along the pitch perpendicular hillside and that without the interruption of the defenses – would buy terraces speed, dragging the valley eroded land and other materials. It ‘obvious that the shorter the distance that the water runs from the beginning and that is from the line of watershed, and subsequently between defense and defense smaller the amount of water that is added, the lower the danger of erosion and dragging downstream of water, mud and other materials. By studying a hilly ground, depending on whether it worked or not, you easily determine how many “defenses” will take and how much will have to be far from each other to prevent storm water runoff, accumulating damage. It begins to interrupt the path of the water with the first defense below the ridge line where erosion begins. So open the defense for that part of the hilly ground and for certain rainfall, not too heavily, but not manifest themselves more numerous erosions or capillaries erosions significant.


This “road halfway” must have a ‘tilt, or if the upstream slope of the water table is high, ie, the waters they should be from the edge of the “defense” towards the escarpment upstream or downstream, if the slope of the water is medium to low. In the first case the water that collects along the line of intersection between the slope of the mountain and the defense, at a given point, is decanted into a cockpit and diverted back to

the direction of slope of the land

Fig 16. details of a defense in section.


Fig 17. – Tractor snowmobile bulldozer.

How can I implement defense-terraces


As the “bridle”, “defense” is realized with the frontrunners (bulldozer in front blade with hydraulic control). Can not be used dozers for mechanical lifting. Having to walk halfway up the instrument, it is necessary that at the beginning, to prevent it from slipping downstream to form a pitch, so you can take the horizontal position.

Formed the pitch, it angles the blade so that the tip is affected by the slope of the collina.Proseguendo for a few meters and turning a fan, you throw the earth into the valley.

Advancing so, you have a first trace of “defense”, which is then executed with the same bulldozer.

Among the first tracing, needed to be able to walk the tractor on level ground, and the improvement of the defense, it is very useful plow “to throw out” several times (usually 2-3 times alternating with passages of bulldozer) the headquarters of the defense. In this way considerably reduces the work of the scraper that is more expensive.

It ‘s very important to have good ruspasti, or palisti who know how to perform even the slope of the mountain with the blade, the blade or mechanical tilting horizontally. The slope of the valley is formed as the land falls. As for the bridle is important to compress the side of the defense to avoid cracks and landslides.

The part of the defense – upstream terrace is open on solid ground, the downstream consists of filling earth. The same considerations made for the reins: you have that compression is very accurate and uniform. Also for the compression side of the defense, it is good that the tractor track means taking steps outside.

As the ruspista can work well, the slope of the mountain must be regularized at hand, rather it is advisable that the regularization is performed to soon as possible to facilitate revegetation, to sopragiungere rainy.

Fig 18. – Eyelash defense turfed.


Grassing of the defenses


It ‘good to sow now this escarpment on, alfalfa, clover or other essences. In certain circumstances it is appropriate to sow the “weeds”, since these herbs, to the extent not usable, however, get the effect of stabilizing the soil of the slope, which become green, presents no more danger.

We have seen important examples of this technique along the Autostrada del Sole, zone by zone is

determine which species are sown. If you can sow something usable, the slope can provide fodder, but when, the main task of the works is not so much the production as the stabilization of the soil, sow the essences are most suitable for this purpose.


Functions of the defenses – terraces


The defense replaces the old “pit level” for the following reasons:


1) land little tilted, the interruption of the water is not an obstacle crossing hilly mechanical means, as the plots upstream and downstream of the interruption line of defense are properly connected. In soils on average inclined defense works as well as road ditch.

2) Any ground transportation during the rains of exceptional intensity are to stop at the level of defense, and therefore are easily removed by subsequent steps dell’apripista or mechanical shovel, otherwise the emptying of the pits underground levels requires a greater burden and times longer working.

3) In very steep terrain, defenses suitably connected, while retaining their function as I cross, also constitute a special series of terraces (ground Rather flat) can be used beautifully for the planting of trees and vineyards or for normal crop rotation .

4) The defenses can replace ditches upstream of cultivation – as I’ll describe in the following paragraphs of accommodation of arable land – when they are opened at the foot of the slopes of the hills overhanging valley areas, and their function is to protect the valley from messy break into surface waters of the hilly slopes of the mountain and in this case also constitute a useful rural roads.

The limit line between the valley area arable and non-arable slopes of the hills has not always uniform gradient for long enough to collect a sufficient amount of water. In this circumstance will require shifts in earth to fill hollows and protuberances cut. This reduces to a minimum the number of ditches collectors (see Part III, p. 139) which are open along the direction of slope of the land, crossing the valley areas, leading to major collectors, along preordained lines, the waters of the slopes.

Fig 19. – Defenses filleted


Defense system – terraces connected


First of all, it should be noted that after the construction of the defenses and the regularization of the escarpments, the extension of the water increases hilly surface. In horizontal projection, dall’ipotenusa line of the flap, with the cutting of the defense, come to form two short sides. In a sense, almost the entire surface of the defense is additional to that of the slopes, corresponding to the extension of the flap, before the completion of the work.

This consideration should be made only for the foot not very inclined, in which, open the defenses, can be used economically also scarpate radiused to them, otherwise the advantages are 2, the first is to prevent the erosion of stabilizing aquifers, the second is to obtain flat land on steep hill slopes.

Creating a set of defenses, it has a system of defenses when they are established between various connections similar to sharp bends sufficiently large to pass through the means of work and transport from one to another with ease defense, defense systems on the slopes with a strong inclination means of intense activity may be only small ones drawn manually. This fittings is the most delicate point in the realization of a system of defenses.

The number of defenses to open along the pitch hilly can vary from a minimum to prevent erosion, to a maximum for the most extensive use of flat areas on hilly steep slopes.

As mentioned in the paragraph “Functions of the defense,” the realization of a system of defenses on slopes very well replace the burglary or the holes for the planting of orchards and vineyards.

As an example we consider a flap hill with a slope of 60%. Open a defense of the width of 3-5 meters, the slope of the valley will be formed to carry earth to a height of 1.5 meters or less. Is thus obtained a layer of earth removed more than enough for the planting of the above-mentioned plants. Furthermore, the following advantages: the location of the plants on the edge eliminates any drainage work for the draining of water penetrated in excess. The operations of irrigation, pruning, spraying and harvesting, are made possible at significantly lower costs compared to conventional systems, for the road that offers a system of defenses properly connected.

It is not good to be planted immediately trees on the verges of the defenses, because no matter how accurate it was the compression, the earth settles down during the winter, when damp. It ‘better to wait until the following year. The soil to compress does not matter, as it is transported soil and plants can be planted only by opening the seat needed for the bread of land and for the slip up.


Fig 21. – Valley protected by a defense (see the curve in the center of the photo).

Fig.22 Example of terraces on the hillside steep slope with fittings for working with small tools to guide manual.



Once you have made the defenses necessary to regulate the water in the hilly slopes to steep slopes. It interrupts the path length of water collected along the line of intersection between the slope of the mountain and the headquarters of the defense of the wells performed in an elementary way and spaced appropriately. We briefly describe this little work of art.

E ‘is sufficient that the section of 80 x 80 cm and the depth of about one meter. It can be made with the material that you have available, stone, tufa blocks or bricks. There are also prefabricated concrete wells.



From the bottom of these wells start tubes that pass through the defense similar to a bridge, and go to take on the descendants. It ‘just that the tubes are of the diameter of 30 cm – 40. The entrance of the pipes must be about twenty inches above the bottom of the well for the partial settling of water. It should be very careful in putting in place the tubes, because if for some reason it occasionally (cracking land, mice holes, land is not sufficiently compressed) it penetrates the water

Fig 24. – Direction and cockpit.



The descendants, impluvii secured, can be external (channels or half-pipes) and then rely upon the slope of the valley at the terminal point of crossing, or internal, ie tube, and then joined the crossings and flow into or below on the defense, or main ditch. Defense in defense, the waters are carried to the main ditch.

At the mouth of the tubes at the foot of the slope of the valley is good that there is another well or is coated wall or ditch defense against which the water beats (crushed stone, tufa blocks, bricks). These small works of art of rustic character, can be performed by any worker in the fields. The mortar is good that it is lime-cement.

If the soil or bedrock below are not easily eroded, the cockpit masonry, crossover and the descendant can be replaced. In this case the well is dug into the rock and the crossing can be replaced by the “step backward” (see p. 99, rural roads), the descendant of the water away from the “water way”, which we discuss in Chapter ditches.


Fosse containment

The pits were containment usefully tested in the United States, in the aftermath of major disasters occurred in the Tennessee Valley.

Was similar to consist of open trenches along contours of steep slopes intended to reforestation and grazing.

These trenches are made to depth, width and distance from one another, such as to fill up without overflow at each rain intensity and duration of high and medium.

The slope will be divided in transverse bands delimited by these was that during the rain will fill up, preventing it from falling to drop to the valley. The bands were among the containment will thus receive almost exclusively waters zenith.

In certain types of rock, part of the water, which fills the pits, can creep into fenditure.Oltre to the advantage of having a greater capacity for collecting, from the network was, in certain circumstances, can easily occur a considerable enlargement of the sources of the valley. In fact, with the system of mass containment is subtracted from the maximum to the sliding of the rainwater that falls on the slopes.


It ‘clear that we must perform above the geologic which must ascertain the presence and inclination of the clay layers, which could, absorbing water, “slip” and lead to large landslides.

It ‘clear that in the presence of clay layers underlying the surface layer of humus is preferable not realize it was containment, but simply narrow paths equal to those that are being built grazing animals to graze on the flat on the walls hilly with steep slopes: There are small excavators with bucket width 20 – 30 cm dozers and minimum width less than 1 meter.

A complementary use of mass containment is to plant rows of young trees, and in this case should be filled with the previously excavated earth and partly with soil, you will have a reduced storage capacity of rainwater was compared to the traditional open from the USA, but you will get a rapid growth of trees on land drained, the benefits of plant rows of trees are as follows: increase of woody biomass for the production of alternative energy in the atmosphere and release oxygen uptake of carbon dioxide, the fact that the latter reduces the greenhouse effect.


Fig.25 Example of terracing on the hillside in average slope.

Fig.26 1) The wall before gently sloping hills of the accommodation in terraces.

2) The wall after hillside accommodation terraces.

3) Detail of the ditch valley above the esarpment unkempt, protected transport cement pipes and dall’alberatura in rows.


Large terraces on the hills gently sloping

Even the hills at a slight slope resting on sand or other types of soft rock, can be damaged by erosion. Under these circumstances it is possible to close the erosion and prevent it from reforming realizing spacious terraces and slopes towards the valley, unlike the terraces defense, which should be opened in counter upstream.

Transversely to the line of slope, at suitable distances, open up the steps that interrupt the existing slope, the hill slope is divided into large sections or terraces interspersed with narrow and steep escarpments that we can also call or stepped contour. The essential mechanical means is mounted possibly the forerunner of the eventual crawler tractor shovel toothed, proceeding in front all’apripista, this makes the job easier and faster. The movements dell’apripista are fan-shaped so as to form the terraces to start from the top, using the same technique of the terraces in defense, in this case the blade will be tilted toward the valley.

From a distance, you can observe, instead of the single pitch to a slope, terraces sloping down to the valley slope to less than the previous one, neighboring each with strips of uncultivated slopes to steep slopes. Along the top of the slopes will be possible to plant trees that will come to be on shaky ground and drained, the slopes can be kept clean by means of the recent brush cutters with manual engine mixture.

These terraces require machining to circumvatingterraces and prevent the formation of erosions capillaries with the consequent entrainment downstream of earthy material and impoverishment of fertility.






Fig.28 Reconstruction with poles and trees in the area caved



Bioengineering techniques

The design B illustrates one of the many techniques of bioengineering built along some stretches of the river Austrian Inn: to reduce speed and increase the range has been doubled the width of the river by building a new bed without deleting the old dams on which they were developed hundreds of willows.

The interventions of environmental engineering are much less expensive than traditional interventions with works by cement to reinforce the banks and make them more resistant to the erosive force of the water you can plant trees such as willows that grow rapidly and to facilitate the onset of spontaneous new plants that help to increase the stability of the work. “In addition to Austria, examples of works of natural engineering have been successfully implemented in France, Switzerland and other countries, in Italy only began in the 80s” – said Giuliano Sauli, President of the Association ‘s Bioengineering

– “And were carried out in South Tyrol, Trentino and the Veneto.”

Although the experiences of South Tyrol are positive is still difficult to gain acceptance for engineers and technicians the ability to use the techniques of bioengineering, including the lack of information radio and television in this matter.

Traditional systems often lead classics results in extremely negative impact invasive and have particularly high costs of implementation. Unlike the use of natural materials, not only in a few years leads to the same technical results, but fails to fully restore the degraded area in the natural environment with significantly lower costs than those of classic.


Methods and materials proposed from engineering naturalistic

For example, wood piles cross each other in a different manner depending on the case and subsequently reinforced with soil taken nearby, crammed between the posts themselves, may give rise to a structure for which resistance is not less than absolutely certain walls in concrete : These require, for the thickness and depth of the foundations, huge amounts of concrete that have a strong negative impact on the environment from the point of view of landscape.




Works of art


The costs are relatively high, even for coarse masonry even in the countryside, there may be the burden of the transport of material and water. These works must be carried out in the hills when the soil is not too wet, since transporting pipes and stones on wet hill slopes, along which it slides, it’s really expensive. Once you’ve made your defenses, you can supply the material using roads that the defense provides.

With regard to the materials, you should check that they are inexpensive. Statement is a material not cheap, but one that has the lowest price of use, which lasts longer, making us spend less each year.

Gabions, retaining walls, under and against the shoe are needed rarely, but, for those works of a larger effort, please refer to the specialized manuals.


Moving the earth


Moving the earth with the bulldozer, the amount that can be moved depends on the conditions of moisture and soil strength, the type of instrument used and the skill of the person who conduce.Questi three elements are so variable that it is not possible to make a accurate prediction. You can say something generic, but still very useful. It ‘good to repeat that at the time of completion of the work the land should be neither too wet nor too dry. The dry earth is hardly affected, the land is too wet form a kind of curl, roll in front of the blade, and the quantity transported is minimal. Using ground too wet, as has been said above, increase the dangers of cracking summer. A defense or a bridle may collapse because of the cracks in summer. If you had a rain out of time, you have to realize the conditions under which the land is located to resume and complete the work.

The large dozers move as much of the land and their operating cost is proportionally less than the work that they can get, compared to the average (60

– 70 horses). The large also have the technical advantage, that it is desirable to be applied to small and

in junior high, the horizontal displacement hydraulic control of the blade as well as the vertical axis. In the work described above, are frequent horizontal displacements of the blade.

We do not enter on the financial capability purchase by medium and small companies of such instruments, just observe that, for works that do not require timeliness and fixed periods for their implementation, the management of these tools can be implemented by farmers’ associations or contractors .

Employing dozers great power should not be tempted to open up defenses much wider than 3-5 feet, since, especially in very steep terrain, you would find a lot more barren rock, and the remarkable cutting of the slope of the mountain which derives from it, would increase the risk of erosion and landslides. It ‘s always possible to regularize and protect with higher charges the slopes of the mountain cut very high, if particular road works or other large justify leveling of land in the hills.

The dozers medium power may have wide use for these jobs is that for leveling which we will discuss below. The dozers of average power can also be used for other agricultural work, and finally, for work companies located in non-contiguous, have the advantage of being trucked to normal size.

At the same machine and terrain, the change in cost, dependent on the skill of the driver, can be even 500%. If you do not have an idea who conducts plastic and precise work that must be done and if it does not have the absolute mastery of the instrument (which may for instance be the reverse gears, which cost the same as the forward gears are quadrupled) the cost increases by proportional. Taking the earth is not exactly “in verse” it may happen that for each trip she harbors a lot less than the instrument may, for this affects the ability of the ruspista much on the cost of moving earth.

For the execution and maintenance of these works and numerous capillaries are needed for the Rural Districts Soil that can identify with the Reclamation Montani in areas where they still exist and / or with the mountain communities that are assisted by teams technicians of the Provincial Inspectorates and Forestry, agricultural and regional councils: These team of technicians periodically moving from one district to another weekly, can cover large areas of intervention.



Legislative measures aimed at preventing erosion and landslides are the constraints that prevent owners and farmers to work steep slopes with gradients of more than 20-25% with annual crops sown in autumn and winter, with the exception of those placed in slopes terraces – defenses.

For certain particularly tough terrains, ie resistant to erosion, it may authorize the cultivation of meadows with multi-seeding in the spring season, during which the rains do not come with violence and particularly large quantities as it happens in the winter and autumn.

The technicians prepared to constraint checking hydraulic-agrarian technicians must be of the Reclamation, the Forest and mountain communities in their territories, supported by the military Air Force. They will also, as stated above, the task of controlling the levels of all reservoirs, ponds from the tank to the hill reservoirs for irrigation and fishing, to large reservoirs for the production of hydroelectricity.




WORKS AND TECHNIQUES FOR SOIL PROTECTION OF THE VALLEY flood defense works to be built in the valley basins expansion


In addition to the works of defense of the mountain, especially in very large river basins, it is useful to design and build “works of the valley” in the vicinity of watercourses to reduce and sometimes eliminate damage to buildings and cultivated fields due to breaking sudden and violent river water.

To avoid sudden and violent floods can be constructed basins expansion that have the same functions as the reservoir lakes and rolling but they differ in their location and their size, because they build on the plains crossed by rivers upstream of urban areas that you want to protect, that is hundreds of meters and sometimes kilometers before the same areas you pre-order large spaces that are artificially flooded by technicians when the rivers reach and exceed alert levels.


For example, upstream of the city of Rome, a few dozen kilometers before crossing the Tiber the city, in the town of Magliano Sabino, between two bends of the river Tiber is flooded throughout a large area by opening the appropriate dams along the banks whenever the river in full in the downstream section exceeds dangerous levels under the bridges of the city.

You can create pools of partial expansion, where possible and where it is easier. E ‘is quite obvious that the smaller the amount of water that is artificially expand, the lower is the lowering of the level of the river flood. But small basins expansion for the various tributaries and sub-tributaries for small, influence, though numerous, the main waterway.




The banks conist of embankments developed in length along the waterways along the two sides and their function is to contain within the river water and avoid that in case of full invade the surrounding areas.

We have different types of banks: waterways, maritime also called dams, drainage, irrigation.

On top of the levees are sometimes built small embankments narrower that take the name of soprasuoli and have the purpose of preventing flooding of water overtime.

The river banks, which are the most common, are generally constructed of compressed earth by applying the same techniques discussed in the section “Techniques of construction of dams in compressed earth.”

E’fondamentale in the construction of new embankments and in the reinforcement of existing ones, the leveling and the compression of the individual layers of soil shown on the embankment; such compression must be carried out layer by layer, so as to form an embankment compact.

At the ditches leading to the draining surface water and that penetrated more than the optimal amount, ie in more than one capillary tubes crossings will require adequate section equipped with special valves that allow the release of rainwater from cultivated fields caused by rain or irrigation systems to prevent sliding and, in case of flood, to pass through the embankment in the opposite direction.

The height of the crest of the embankment must be greater than the height of the average water level in the middle of at least half a meter or that height that is deemed necessary based on the levels of guard

achieved in the past, in order to avoid overflows which might open some holes in the body of the embankment. The difference in height between the water level of the river under the soft and the level reached by a swollen river is called “frank”.

With the passing of time, the rains and the possible


transit above the dam, the embankment embankment tends to compact, and then to fall: in this case the proportion of “ex” and that is the height of the embankment than the average level of full tends to be reduced even below the middle meter and in this case it is necessary to increase the height of the top of the embankment with other layers of filling earth to be leveled and compacted by mechanical means with the utmost accuracy.

The top of the embankment, to be driven by mechanical means such as shovels and dozers, must be at least 4 meters, so it facilitates the eventual lifting work and compaction of the embankment.

If for any reason the bank, such as compressed earth dam, seepage that had to endure over the years, increasing, are likely to cause collapse, it is necessary to completely drain the reservoirs and rebuild the dam height in which they occur infiltration. For the banks need to wait the summer period, of lean, during which the waters fall very far below the level of soft (soft level is the average level of the waters of rivers reached during the year under the normal rainfall) and rebuild the part of the bank that the infiltration have compromised. The part of the levee compromised by the infiltration must be removed so that the part to rebuild it rests on a plane inclined slightly outwards: the land of carryover for these restoration works must be optimum moisture “tempera”, ie neither too wet nor too dry, and so the compression of the layers of fill will be uniform and the embankment will purchase the compactness of a clay brick.

To avoid elevations of embankments where possible it is useful to leave strips of land along the banks, possibly cultivated poplar grove between the same banks and levees, and these strips of suitable width are called floodplains.




Floodplains, as mentioned in the previous paragraph, are plateaus, in some cases large, situated between the banks of a river or a simple stream and the banks of the same: these spaces – including the islands that can be formed – change over the years with the change of the path of the river.

The alluvial zones are considered for their use appliances and belong in part to the State and partly to private landowners bordering the river: the state-owned shares are those closest to the banks, which are under water during periods of high and those in private beyond the water line during floods. It is not always easy to determine the boundaries between one and the other.

In any case, it is proposed to grant the parties state property owners who request it by the tax authorities based on the RDL June 18, 1936 n. 1338 also provides that providences to facilitate and spread the cultivation of poplar in floodplains domain. The license will be awarded according to criteria established by the various provincial committees formed to the increase in the Arboricultural state-owned appliances: by dealers is paying rent, but only an annual fee in recognition of state ownership. The concession is granted for the period necessary to the maturation and cutting of the product and gives the licensee the right to take ownership of the product of the soil.

When there is dispute between the parties Alluvial most owners do not belong to the State because the seaward side of the boundary line reached by the floods, the Civil Engineers intervenes to establish the conditions elevation of the land along the banks and to determine the boundary lines between those entitled accordance with the customs. The riparian interested in the recognition of the right of property shall submit an application in triplicate to the Local Finance with attached floor plans of the land of which calls for the recognition of property rights: the Superintendency of Finance for the recognition of the property and its stacking is makes use of the technical work of Civil Engineers.

The granting of the growing parts of the state-owned wetland areas may be revoked for non-compliance of the obligations assumed by the dealer and may also be revoked for reasons of public interest, such as due to the need to strengthen the levees, taking the ground in the flood plain in dry periods.


Adjustments and modifications to the law of 1936 were introduced by the Law of 31 July 1956 no. 1016 and later with the law of 12 December 1960 concerning the composition of the provincial commission, the minimum duration of 10 years of the license, the restriction to a maximum of 18 hectares of pre-emption right exercisable by the third-party tenants in case of sale by of the owners.

From a technical point of view it is important to encourage tree cultivation, ensuring by the State, in particular the sale of cutting rotation poplar trees planted in the canal area, so the farmer is interested in the work of periodic cleaning by any means brushwood trimming and smorganatura of these areas, preventing the growth of wild flora floodplain which would reduce the flow of river water in times of flood, and will be encouraged by the state subsidies to the work of leveling with uniform slopes down to the shore to avoid harmful standing water to stop the flood or rains, when the waters fall in the floodplains.


I was spillways

The ditches are opened spillways upstream stretches of rivers or streams that cross municipal or industrial settlements: they serve to drain the excess water that, having exceeded the alert level, could overflows in areas at risk and cause serious flood damage; otherwise, making them deviate, by opening and conveying in a ditch or drainage channel or in most ditches spillways, lower levels of full and can prevent flooding sudden and destructive.

The deviation of the excess water can be done automatically when the waters of the main stream exceeds a given flow rate and flow into the floodway ditch, or artificially through the opening of sluice gates, preferably made of cedar wood, which are as small open dams on a wall of the river in the periods of full, to the conjunction with one or more ditches or channels spillways. In certain circumstances where it is virtually impossible to create a reservoir expansion adjacent to the watercourse, the channel floodway expansion can connect the dock to be built far from the banks of the river, connecting it precisely with the floodway ditch. In other circumstances, you can not help but build the basin expansion and drain the water of the ditches or spillways downstream: a) in the same stream, exceeded the traits that run through residential areas or industrial, b) at sea , c) in a natural or artificial reservoir already constructed and located in the vicinity provided that it has a remarkable ability to invade.


Floods Natural – Artificial Flooding – Marcite to the rice fields In certain countries there are conditions under which the rivers have not been dammed overflows periodically for thousands of years, flooded the neighboring fields and do not cause damage to crops, and even shed carrying fertile silt.

Certainly it is essential that, in order to avoid stagnation and as a result of asphyxiation plants, are carried out land reclamation and settlement of land before the commencement of rainy periods: once created these works, it is essential to establish organizational structures for their maintenance periodic. These structures must be established on the example of Soil Conservation Districts of the United States.

The reclamation works ranging realized one-off and


in subsequent years must be maintained, it is the leveling of the different units of cultivation with uniform slope toward the ditches of the valley (see p. 135 and following) and the main ditches generally should be opened against the slope parallel to the trend lines of the same river beds .

Most of the flood plains, due to the floods that have occurred in the geological past, present near the bed of the river, under the layer of earthy, coarse material such as pebbles and rubble and then, farther from the shore, material gradually more up and consequently the slope of the same plains is not prevalent towards the banks, but on the contrary away from these. Therefore, the main drainage ditches that collect the water in the capillaries of the valley were various units of cultivation, are opened, as shown in the previous period against the slope, even hundreds of meters from the river, running parallel to the direction of the river downstream for not less than a few hundred meters and then are turned always in contropendenza normally at a right angle and facts Unlock more downstream towards the river to be able to drip surface waters and the drainage of the different units of cultivation.

These plains were plowed for presoni with wings 12 or more meters to fill, so that the work units had two slopes: one from the ridge to the sides of the socket and another along the natural slope towards the ditch capillary downstream of the same unit. For several decades, ie since it was first introduced the technique of Ripping (1), useful also to break the crust of processing (2), the connectors can be machined no longer to fill, but also in the plan. Certainly, if the seasons of the agricultural year are very rainy and the rock below the tilled layer is waterproof type, to have a draining of the water penetrated more than capillaries is more appropriate to work to fill the sockets and give them the dual-slope towards the sides and towards the valley, intending for the downstream direction of maximum slope of the plot

Because of bradyseisms-slow movements of lowering of the crust with respect to sea level – the ex-cultivation (1) of land machinable reduces and in these cases the level of the land may even drop below the level of the sea, in this circumstance are required dewatering, huge pumps that remove water from the fields, in order to restore a sufficient thickness of franco cultivation. A possible technique to cope with the decline of the franc of cultivation is to plow taken to fill a very narrow to a width of 10 meters and then with wings


5 meters, so that the ditches side capillaries are shallow, and consequently also the ditches of the valley and the ditches main, so as to prevent stagnation surface and subsurface. In this case it is preferable to implant multiannual crops, plantations, trees or vegetables that do not require much of deepen their roots and do not require large machines, such as combine harvesters, for the collection of the products themselves.



It should also mention the work of dredging which consist in the removal from the beds of rivers of solid material, mostly sand mixed with soil and rubble, transported on the beds of waterways from erosion, both natural and those caused by humans which, with the passing of time greatly reduce the scope of those waterways. If such material is removed and does not maintain the same flow rate (ie the amount of water that passes to the minute in a given section of the river) is necessary to lift several times the banks, the


(1) The ex-cultivation is the difference in elevation between the bottoms of the main ditches and the lowest part of the worked layer and must be such as to allow the roots of cultivated plants to grow in a layer of soil to the right humidity and not excessively wet.

that, in addition to being much more costly of the dredging work, it becomes impractical in years.

In the recent past, for purposes other than those of maintain a certain balance between depth and extent of the beds of rivers, exclusively for economic reasons, it is no exaggeration to nell’asportare river sand for construction, reducing, it seems according to some environmentalists, the nourishment of the long stretches of sandy beach coasts. Then you are wrong in blocking indiscriminately with laws and ordinances of the removal of materials from the beds of rivers, if nothing is done in a balanced way in the dredging works, the same shall cease to become navigable rivers, besides the fact of overflow much more easily also not particularly intense and prolonged rainfall over time.

The objective of this work of flood defenses and flood consequence, as for the other described in the text, is to abandon the philosophy of laissez-faire to the forces of nature by removing any artificial human intervention, but to achieve different interventions even small and several on land and on water courses that will bring balance to the ecosystem and compatible with the preservation of the environment, including reforestation and in particular the planted rows of income from trees such as poplars, walnuts and chestnuts should be encouraged with more streamlined procedures and with contributions biennial capital, returnable at the time of thinning and selling. This is useful to protect the environment and protect the incomes of agricultural workers.



Paragraph C of Article 3 of Law No. 18 May 1989


183 for the organizational and functional soil conservation involves the moderation of floods also flooded by reservoirs, tanks rolling, basins, drains, spillways, diversions for defense against floods and flooding.


Embankment protection and reconstruction of artefacts raised above the level of flood


Dell’esondazione the damage caused by the flood is not only the fact that the water comes out dall’alveo, damaging the artifacts, but the fact that, once out, does not fall and remain the flooded areas.This occurs where it has imperfection of conformation of the ground, for example on the plains of Puglia, where many


areas are in counter and the defect is corrected. Just a slight difference because the water surface and even more so the water has penetrated more than the capillary does not come out of the ground: the agronomic damage is very serious.

The waters that invade the land must be as can clear: if carrying solid material, this is superimposed on the ground and produces serious damage. If it were like those of the Nile waters, rich in organic nutrients from the forests upstream in the catchment area, the fact would be completely different. E ‘known that the waters of the Nile are running through sandy soil fertilizer, not only moisture, but because enrich the soil of a significant amount of organic matter, known as silt. This happened for thousands of years until it was built the Aswan Dam which prevented the natural flooding during the rainy season.

The waters that come down from our mountains are not, in most cases, fertilizers because down through the large erosions, in which the surface soil horizon is long gone. So come down the murky waters carrying sterile materials that, superimposed on the ground, decrease its production capacity.


The embankments may be “protective”: For example, if a group of existing buildings is located below the level reached by the waters of the river, you can surround it with a protective embankment thus preventing the waters to invade it.

Where should themselves develop new routes or houses, the support surface must be previously established at a level higher than that which the water can reach: the road will go over-detected. In any case, roads and artifacts should be placed in French, that is safe above the levels reached by the floods and the floods, allowing the water to expand into the basin, it is essential to realize, earlier before the occurrence of floods, the life of King -also of the subsurface water outlet: we need to create the entire network of drainage by opening of large and small ditches.

Of the word must be well draining clarify the meaning. For drainage to be understood “water drain out” that is out of the water penetrated more than the amount capillary. Here it comes to technical sistematoria.






Works and interventions for the ordinary and extraordinary maintenance of secondary roads



Farm roads

Having easy to travel along roads has always been a comfort for any company, but today this convenience has become a necessity. When he was not widespread use of mechanical equipment, animals, or saddle or pulling carts or sledges, they could go almost anywhere.

The generalization of the use of mechanical means requires making a road network of many other features that are not old paths passable on foot and by animals.

The Company’s internal roads which must not be crossed during the rains, can be made in clay. Ie it is prepared the “dumpster” carefully compressed to a single gradient of 2-3% towards the ditch – the ditch bordering the neighboring fields, for the collection of rainwater.


The efficiency of these roads more than the other depends on the maintenance of gutters and penetrations, very economical operation, which must be repeated several times a year with the utmost diligence.

The grassing or simply sprinkling of minute siliceous-calcareous material in small quantities, make these streets more compact and durable.

The width of the road should be as small as possible, just enough for two media intersect, even if they have to slow down their already low speed. Four, five meters, or six, if you will, are sufficient.

Being small streets is not necessary resorting to formulas for the road curvature, as for large roads. For small streets just saying that they must be suitably baulate1. A tilt of the 4 –

5% is necessary and sufficient. If the baulatura is a bit ‘ accentuated, nothing wrong. Are roads that the vehicle does not run at high speeds and the baulatura accentuated facilitates the exodus of the water, thereby forming less holes.


Fig 29. – Elimination of the docks for the transformation of the old docks with gutters gutters protected by the French. Note the widening of the roadway.

Construction of the road in compressed earth

Defined the track, (and almost always in the countryside there is an old track which is normally the most logical, as the result of old experience), you must set forth precisely the line of one of the 2 lateral gutters. Then, using the scraper, also known as the forerunner, take the line specified by transferring soil from the side towards the center. To achieve this, the blade of the scraper must be suitably angled with respect to the direction of travel and conveniently inclined, ie towards the lower gutter and higher towards the center of the road.

Completed the track on one side, you run


(Of course progressing in the reverse direction) and the other side that is the other gutter to French. In soils with regular 2-3 passages bulldozer, rarely more, you get the roadway into the ground. Once you move from the sides towards the center, the land must be compressed. For the compression can be used a truck, or a wheeled tractor of average power.


Hand showers


A significant burden in the implementation as in the maintenance of rural roads and bridges is given by the vicinal, it may be replaced by “steps showers” (crossovers made a countersunk gutter). Trick to remember is that these bumps are very wide cross: 10-15 meters for light at an angle to the bottom line. It ‘important that the bottom of the “step backward”, “throws” the water from the gutter to the other, and which does not form a transverse gutter that would make the transit too difficult.


If the rainwater falling with considerable frequency and intensity, the steps showers are paved with rustic way with suitable materials For the most regularization of cuts escarpments and for better compression, the best times for the execution are those in which the soil is humid and mildly ie in our climate in spring and autumn.


Fig 30. – The bridge was replaced by the “step backward”


Fig 31. Leveling machine



Roads and vicinal interpoderale

The most important streets of the small dirt roads can be built using compressible material. The best is the so-called “mixed” (clay, sand, gravel), are then tuffaceous and pozzolanic materials.

In compressible material should not be too large stones or pebbles, and these, by opposing a different resistance to the action of compression of vehicles and water are undermined and form holes.




On the streets in modern mantle protected, now there are no more the traditional ballast, maintenance is simplified.

The material is partially removed by the wind (dust), and moved from the water, the greater part, however, is moved from the transit center to the sides of the road. With the bulldozer or grader with large tilting blade also vertically, it is reported that the material toward the center of the transit has dodged to the sides. With this transaction you revise and reopen those stretches of gutter to the “French” (see p. 106) that can become clogged.


Reshaped and rilivellata the roadway you can judge if you need to, and how much the “recharge”, that is the superposition of other material. It ‘not recommended charging before having regularized the roadway.

The livelletta blade tilted and stabilized applicable to low-power tractors or the bulldozer if necessary, calibrate and maintain the right angle to the defenses and roads, economically and perfect. The best time for this regularization is from mid-April to mid-May or October when the surface soil is sufficiently moist. If simultaneously applies to wheeled tractor equipped with a mechanical shovel livelletta rear toothed front, it facilitates the smuovimento of the material and consequently the work of livelletta rear.


Maintenance of unpaved roads


As well as for the local roads, even for the old municipal, where the roadbed was covered by huge reserves of gravelly material that with the passage of vehicles leaned away at the edge of the road, the maintenance can be greatly reduced in cost compared to the old systems based on single charge.

In fact, the bulldozers and better yet the powerful self-leveling graders, either use generally to pave the roads, with a few rounds a year risagomano the roadway to perfection, virtually eliminating the charging.

Discipline water

All roads, be they major, national, or secondary, are subject to destruction from the water during periods of intense rainfall, both those that run in the bottom of the valley, both halfway.

The damage is sometimes very serious, but also minor damage thereby occasion breaks transit for days and at various times during the rainy season. E ‘therefore clear that for the permanent efficiency of the road network is necessary beforehand to regulate the waters of affecting the road network, as shown in the “Works of soil stabilization.”


Implementation of bumps


Necessary condition for the efficiency and preliminary for the preservation of any road, is that the lateral gutters, which must collect the waters of the seat itself, the escarpments that flank it, and sometimes the adjacent land, are efficient.

The bumps, as is known, can be of three types:

a)      protected from bumps dock

b)      The dock is performed when the gutter, collecting a substantial amount of water (roadway, land flanking it), it must have considerable section. Becoming a real ditch, you must protect the edge with the docks. The water of the roadway goes against the quay and at short distances, you have to open the cuts when they enter the water draining into the ditch of the road-bump. The docks must be properly vegetated.

As with all earthworks, the regularity of execution, the accuracy of the lines, allow the water to flow without any deviations and therefore without producing damage. b) bumps in the French

The other type of gutter is hump-called “French”, namely the roadway goes directly to the bottom of the gutter, without the quay.

This is possible when the amount of water is not judged as to fill a real ditch. Evidently the French gutter is cheaper,because it does not require large-scale maintenance, and avoids the danger that transit vehicles sliding into the ditch-bump. Not only, but the roadway in practice has a width that ranges from center to center of the two gutters, while if there is the quay, the seat Thoroughfare goes from inside to inside of the quay.

c) mixed type bumps


The bumps are mixed-type gutters French ending with a trapezoidal section of side ditches measures contained: 20 – 30 cm at the bottom and a height of no more than 30 -40 cm. From the road bumps to the French and then the dimples rainwater falls without being hampered by the docks. Periodic maintenance is carried out at a low cost for the traits “French”, as indicated in the previous paragraph for trapezoidal ditches even small excavators equipped with buckets arm backward sloping walls do the work of re-opening very quickly. Besides facilitating the maintenance, the scope of this type of bumps is very high in times of heavy rain.


Fig 32. – A) Road with gutters French – b) road with bumps protected by the docks.


Contouring work humpback


In the work of maintenance of roads unpaved surface should be protected, to prevent it from reforming the holes quickly, exaggerate a little nell’inclinare the two wings of the road. In cases where it is difficult or too expensive to find the crawler tractor with dozer blade tilt horizontally and vertically, can be used to shovel mounted on wheeled tractor and be raised only vertically, in which case the palista must have the warning, initiating contouring work first one side and then the other, to realize – placing itself transversely to the direction of the road for a length of 10 – 12 m. – a pitch inclined towards the gutter. Once made the pitch distance, reciprocate the driving direction positioning along the direction of the road, will be found with the wheeled tractor sufficiently tilted and that is with the two front and rear wheel lateral higher toward the center of the road and lower with the other two to the edge of the road, and so continuing to affect with the shovel toothed the road surface, automatically give the first half of the seat inclination desired for the second half progressing in the opposite direction will remake the same job. Of course you will also need the work of livelletta rear tilt for perfect shaping in both directions of travel.


Viability interpoderale hill


The defenses connected to each other, and with the bridle, in large areas even hundreds of acres of devices simple and intuitive, can provide a road for the entire area affected by the works of stabilization. The dams upstream and downstream are connected with the defenses of side slopes overhanging the valleys and form the closure of the road link.

As we have said at the time, arboreal plants on the verges of the defenses and bridles give a threefold advantage: the case of filling earth is not necessary a big hole; just a hole large enough to hold the roots of the plant that you want to stay put , ease of access to treatments and crop care, facilities for collection operations. The viability therefore should not be considered only as a function of transit, but also in terms of convenience for the cultivation of woody plants placed in defense on the edge of the defenses and bridles.


Fig 33. – Appearance of hilly roads leading to works of soil stabilization.


Fig 34. Example of a small concrete bridge. Top tools for emptying, from left to right: the hoe, the “cartoccia,” the shovel.




The crossings sottostradali from gutter to gutter pipes in concrete or plastic of average diameter of 40 – 60 cm. located on flat land are subject to clogging with sand and soil transported from ‘rainwater.

With the arrival of the torrential rains such obstructions cause sudden expulsion of ‘failing to rainwater flowing into the bridge, it pours on the road, causing sudden flooding with the risk of skidding and’ quagmire of vehicles traveling on the roadway.

Before the rainy season summer-autumn are emptied using mainly hand tools 3: the hoe, shovel and cartoccia.

The cartoccia is constituted by a half-iron tube 20 cm long. and a diameter of 10 cm. all sharp ‘end at the bottom and welded to a handle of iron with a diameter of 8 10 mm. and typically 1.5 meters long. , The main use of this tool is to open up the holes to insert into the ground Passoni of wood for the fences; employing such cartoccia almost horizontally away sand and soil is removed from the tubes and, once emptied the jumper from 2 sides, with an iron rod of 10 mm. long how long is the bridge to perforate the soil remained in the central part; rain water after this maintenance work entering with force into the tube and opens it completely, and after one or two years the continuous rains and drag deposited layers of solid material (sand and loam) and the bridge is filled again; fundamentals are the checks and services which should be entrusted to teams of 2-3 people dependent on competent authorities responsible for road maintenance.


Constitution of the Consortia Road


For the realization as for the maintenance of local roads users are given the option to join in a consortium specifically regulated by state law.

The law of 12 February 1958 No. 126 – “Arrangement for the classification of public roads” – stands out in the streets in state, provincial, municipal, military and vicinal.

The state are those which constitute the major directions of national traffic, join the network viable state with that of neighboring states, tie it to the network of roads seaports, serving the interprovincial trade.

The provincial those that are fastened to the provincial capital capitals of the individual municipalities of the respective province capitals and most common among them.

The municipalities are those that connect the major center of the city with its surrounding villages or joining the hamlets between them.

The local roads are all other public and private interest that join multiple properties.


Formalities and mandatory consortia road


The D. L. Luog. September 1st, 1918 N. 146 – “Allowing users of local roads to form a consortium for the maintenance and accommodation or rebuild them” – is the key legislative provisions for the regulation of the establishment and functioning of consortia road. We report the essential parts.

Article 1 – The users of local roads although not subject to public transit may be constituted in the Consortium for the maintenance and accommodation or rebuild them …

2 – The application for the establishment of the Consortium is presented to the Mayor by a number of users who represents, or takes bear at least the third of the costs necessary for the works proposed on the basis of an appraisal summary maximum. The application shall join, in addition to that report, the draft statute consortium and the list schema of the user, with the plan of allocation of the expenditure between them.

The City Council, in consultation with users, formulate all the proposals for the establishment of the Consortium …

The City Council, after at least 30 days of publication, shall decide on complaints and keep in mind the

proposals of the board, approves the establishment of the Consortium …


Article 3 – The City Council is required to compete in maintenance costs, accommodation and reconstruction of local roads subject to public transit in varying degrees from one-fifth to half of the expenditure, according to the different importance of the roads.

For vicinal not subject to public use, the competition of the town is optional, and may be granted only for works concerning the development or reconstruction in an amount not exceeding the fifth of the expenditure.

The City is represented in the consortium with vote proportional to the extent of the competition.


4 – To meet the expenses relating to the vicinal roads, the City may constitute a special fund, establishing, where appropriate, an additional surtax on land and on buildings, in an amount not exceeding 15 cents per pound of revenue tax …

5 – In cases where it would be required the concurrence of the City Council, this office may promote the formation of the Consortium and also directly take on the execution of the works.

In this regard, Article 14 of the more recent Act of 1958 reaffirms the aforementioned mandatory for the establishment of consortia that we are required by law looking for maintenance, reconstruction and establishment of local roads for public use, although falling within the reclamation. In the absence of initiative on the part of the users or the municipality, the same Article. 14 states that the establishment of the consortium provides office the Prefect.

6 – For the validity of the resolutions approving the projects of the works of accommodation and reconstruction of roads, you must vote in favor of a number of users who represents or assume an overall contribution of not less than six tenths of the total expenditure, computed the concurrence of the City Council, mandatory or optional.

This provision is very important because it streamlines the work of the Consortium species for simple maintenance works.

The statutes consortium is generally provided for the second convocation of the meeting, the decisions of the same, any number of participants is sufficient for approval of the agenda.

Article 7-The contributions of users require in the manner and with the privileges established for the collection of direct taxes, through roles compiled from the distribution plan approved by the City Council …

The contribution is real burden of the fund, but none of the users can be forced to pay annually for the works provided a major contribution to more than double the tax burden on its bottom.

Section 8-E ‘in the ability of users to ensure that


execution of the works provided for in this decree to allow the contributions of users which request them, whether in whole or in part by the provision of paid working days.

In areas particularly poor, susceptible of reclamation works and where there is a technical assistance organization operates, this article can be usefully applied.

9 – Any use including temporary and resulting in a Significant use of local roads, which are subject to public transit, is obliged to contribute to their maintenance in view of the greater expense.

In addition to the above mentioned Act, the Consortium is governed by its own statutes. Below I briefly the most important articles of the statute of a consortium.


Article 1 – They are made in the Consortium permanent all users of the road … that starts from .. up to …

Duties of the Consortium are the maintenance and execution of the works necessary for the improvement of road.

2 – They are part of the Consortium all owners of land and buildings which use the above-mentioned road to access their property and that they border on the road, whether they are disconnected and far.

Utilities are different degrees depending on the possibility of access to funds through ways other than those of the consortium.

The list of consortium members or users, with an indication of their properties with the relative degrees of user, street fronts and mileage is annexed to this Charter and is an integral part of it. The obligations of the Consortium are real constraint for the associated property.

3 – Each user has an obligation to participate in the item according to the following criteria:

a) 20% of the cost shared between the riparian in proportion to the extension of the fund on the street front.

b) 80% of allocated expenditure as a proportion of the surfaces of the funds in hectares, multiplied by the average distance in meters.

The average distance is measured from the street … the middle of the street front for riparian, and access that leads to the property for non-riparian.

5 – In the collection of contributions is syndicated provides with the role of contribuenza with the procedures and privileges that apply to the collection of direct taxes.

Practically, users pay their share by the folder of taxes. And ‘This is the greatest benefit that comes from legal recognition of the Consortium road. Today we can say that with the mechanical means at our disposal (bulldozers, graders, trenchers), can not take more money in the competition by the municipality for the maintenance of local roads, provided there is a technician able to perform at ruspista work according to those technical criteria, which have been mentioned earlier.

6 – The bodies of the Consortium: A) the General Assembly of the users; B) the President; C) Government building.

The Consortium uses the work of an expert (obviously paid as a freelancer) to draw up the plans, cost estimates, the final statements, contracts, management and liquidation of the work, the award of costs, the roles of contribution. The coach is appointed and dismissed by the Deputation.

7 – The General Shareholders’ Meeting shall meet once a year.

Follow the ordinary rules with a list of the tasks of President of the Assembly and of the Deputation.


9 – The proceedings and records of the Consortium are on deposit with the town, and to those interested in viewing.

Article 10 – The implementation of the approved work may be made by or in economics or contract. If the Assembly does not decide on the form to be taken for the execution of the work, the decision is left to the Deputation.

The legislative regulations and statutory consortia of local roads is the best that can be expected. What can be seen is the lack, sometimes, civic and private initiative and public and to promote the proper functioning of the secondary road network.

The deficiencies are not of a legislative nature, but psychological, and to overcome them requires a proper work of propaganda that you gave a greater sense of responsibility and interest for a fact that transcends the limited scope that affects agriculture and trade, tourism, building development.




For those who live in the countryside the road is perhaps the most important social services. Making it easy and fast means of communication, is to diminish the sense of isolation for rural populations.

The feel confined and isolated from the rest of the community is one of the reasons that pushes the farmer to inurbarsi, even when there are no sufficient economic reasons.

The state investment nell’asfaltare new roads is limited for economic reasons of construction and maintenance, the most important streets. The internal roads and vicinal syndicated, even in highly industrialized countries, they may be dirt or protective mantle of dry material and compressible.

Among the protective materials, the best is the mixture of sand and rubble, where it is not available in the vicinity can be replaced by gravel or siliceous material particle size with a diameter of no more than 2-2.5 cm mixed with pozzolan or tuff outcrop or other material insoluble.

In the field of rural roads, lack of information, adequate radio or television, you are not warned the benefits of progress, the application of


Modern techniques have not been noted except in a sporadic way.

For technical reasons, organizational and economic situation of the dirt roads and those protected with a layer of compressible material, in some cases above the roadbed, it is generally disastrous.

Although through areas belonging to wealthy owners are unable to find financing or are unable to grant to the users themselves to each other on how to obtain and use them.

Among the technical deficiencies, the main one is the non-use of tilting blade dozers, graders of the auto leveling and power shovels.

The traditional system to maintain these roads with the refill, and that is with the overlap of another material on the hole or on the areas where it is discovered the roadbed is not always necessary. Sometimes the big holes are incorrectly clogged with large stones and rubble that do not mix with the remaining mantle.

The passage of vehicles moves the material to the outer edges of the road, the gutters are clogged and when it rains are formed numerous puddles that slow down the speed of vehicles and in some cases, at the time of maximum rainfall, make them impractical.


The bulldozer with hydraulic blade tilted to the right to move the material (in some cases it accumulates an unexpected amount covered by soil) from the outer edges toward the center of the road, blocking the holes and risagomando the seat.

With the bumps in the French reopening of the same is automatic. E ‘should destroy with the same frontrunners along the docks when large ditches or precipices and do not therefore serve to protect the cars rushing by.





Works and techniques for the elimination of surface water and in most of those penetrated the optimum amount for the cultivation of plants

Described the work of soil stabilization and flood protection sudden and violent, we treat the accommodation, plowing and additional work.

It ‘good to point out that the installation of the work of accommodation in the plains, plowing to fill in the refurbishment of falls.

Settlement of land in the broad sense, not only is all the work of planting, leveling, and baulatura affossatura, which regulate surface water, but includes all those additional operations, which, carried out according to certain criteria, will also govern water absorbed from the soil.

Of course, given the nature of the work, we do not want to deal with these operations in their own right (there is a vast bibliography on the subject) but in the context of the argument conductor: defense and accommodation of soils.


Regularization surface soil


The regularization surface of the soil and that is that it is level is in close connection with the fulfillment of the “unit of cultivation.” For “unit of cultivation” we mean a plot of land independent of the hydraulic point of view (and thus by the runoff de-plots surrounding), delimited by the network of capillary affossatura in order to receive water alone zenith.

Before leveling of flat land as well as those hills, it is necessary to examine whether the affossatura capillary network exists and where it exists, whether it is functional.

The demarcation lines of the ditches is the most delicate point of accommodation. Flat terrain while being high elevations with respect to the main ditch, for lack of affossatura capillary and for particular conditions of arrangement (eg land concati) of severely affected by excessive moisture.

Necessary to study the different slopes, when the line of impluvio is not immediately visible, in order to identify the prevailing slope for a given extent of ground and leveling in consequence so to give uniform inclination to the ground until the predetermined line of watershed which will open the ditch valley. When the slopes are well marked and visible is important to define the lines of the ditches in order to obtain if possible unit of cultivation in rectangular shapes.

The rectangular geometric figure meets the limits in economy of movement of the ground and unable to divert the path of generally were important.

The uniformity of the slope as well as to avoid stagnation of the water, is of particular importance for the surface irrigation.

If the water table is very long hill, should be prevented from the erosion of provoke, dividing the aquifer into several units with permanent ditches along various contours.

The ditch valley of the upper unit will be in this case at the same time the ditch guard unit below.

These ditches may be replaced by narrow slightly recessed with a single slope entirely equal to the defenses – terraces described above; on these streets waters widen. If you need to change the slopes of the plots of land, the ditch side of a unit may become simultaneously the ditch downstream of the border.


In the first leveling of the soil can pave the bulldozer with hydraulic lift, bumps or fill voids, shifting ground in order to give the unit of cultivation a figure as possible rectangular and uniform slope.

The second improvement is leveling carried out by graders equipped with self-leveling blades wide, they make vertical movements of small entities, 10-15 cm, capable of leveling even 11-20 acres per day.

Have been introduced recently applied to the blades teeth and the graders in this circumstance operate at the same time leveling the operation of harrowing.

Before proceeding to the description of the ditches, we examine two practical cases of irregularities of arrangement.

Fig 35. – Adjusting the line of watershed (or diversion ditch) water upstream in relation to the leveling of the valley and the discipline of rain runoff.

I – Fosso into disuse. A ditch that is not regularly maintained, with the passing of the years becomes clogged and rises with respect to the campaign. Upon the occurrence of a violent rain floods. The water, after the rain, can not overcome the bank again and form a second path, which in some cases are adjusted as appropriate, may be the seat of the new ditch. The banks of the old ditch to be leveled otherwise it will create stagnation and loss of arable land. The leveling in this case must be made so that the waters find easy exit in the new ditch.


II – Absence or irregularity in the gutter guard. Valleys surrounded by hilly slopes with steep gradients due to the lack of diversion ditch (ie protection from the waters of the mountain) are crossed in several places by ditches eroded so messy to make it extremely difficult and very profitable cultivation. The regularization of the ground involves the simultaneous opening of the diversion ditch and ditches gatherers.

General rule is that the ditches gatherers hasten around the outer limits of the field and in the middle of the field only the bare number required, and this happens when the field extends hundreds of meters in length.


Fig 36. – A collection of units of cultivation. The first is to ditch upstream of the unit of cultivation. Note that each unit has its own cultivation ditch upstream and downstream of the ditch at the same time is above it (eg, the 2 is to ditch upstream of E, and at the same time, the downstream units A , B, C and D). The arrows schematically represent the slope prevalent.


Criteria for accommodation for land in the plains In floodplains, to search for the prevailing direction of maximum slope, it is sometimes necessary to use specific tools.

It occurs, in some plains valleys, which, with the succession of floods over the millennia, the coarser materials are to be deposited near the river bed and, go, go farther, those small. In this case, the soil will hang towards the outer limits of the valley, the capillary network of affossatura will be arranged according to the actual slope of the ground and that is in the opposite direction to the river, while the main collectors should be opened against the slope to bring the water to more downstream in the river.

In the plains, made the leveling surface, should be given to land a curvature artificial, since the only natural slope is not always enough to bring water to the fields and ditches to the main channels.

The soils are plowed to fill in sockets baulate width of about 20 meters and with a slight inclination of the wings so as to make the operations of agricultural machinery.


The funds from the socket and plug are small ditches to receive water penetrated to every process must be reopened and explored more of the machining plane to avoid puddles subsurface, if the rock below the humus layer is sand or rubble, drainage is automatic and do not need the affossatura capillary, otherwise if the layer of impermeable rock earthy leans affossatura the capillary is indispensable.

The accommodation to the so-called “Padua” and that is very presoni more than 20 meters wide and plowed across involves a radical and permanent change in position of the land. The advantages that this accommodation features are in the permanence of the curvature of the land, so that inclination once given to the two wings of the presone, plowing are realized in the simplest manner in the plan and no longer to fill and scolmare.

The dimples side which in this case become the head with respect to the direction of plowing decrease in number per unit area and more easily remain in efficiency.

The use of bulldozers and graders lowered considerably to the cost of installation of the Property that was once made by hand and with animals.


The inclination of the wings for the perfection of the work achievable by modern graders can be minimal, ie, 1 to 2 percent, is reduced in this way also the displacement of soil for the topping up of the central part of the presone. Finally, it is easy in times of drought the surface irrigation.

The headland that is the strip of land required for the curvatures, which is processed separately and in the hills around, it is advisable to leave it in plain soda to facilitate the implementation and maintenance of the crossings and allow more easily the road at any time of year.

It is given a slight slope with the scraper so that, not sostandovi the water, the rain stopped, is more easily assured transit.

The width of the headland shall be the minimum to allow the tractors and other mechanical means to be able to turn.

For certain soils and certain crops, such as multi-meadows, the width of 10 meters can be taken to correct the interference to deepen the network of affossatura, and this is a major advantage when the franc cultivation is minimal.

The fundamental goal of accommodation is that the entire network of affossatura has a share of slope to

allow the water surface, and at least part of those penetrated, reaching the ditches teachers.

The crossings from the funds of the ditches or taken at the main ditch through the headland of the valley, are realized in concrete or plastic pipes buried, or “step backward.”


Fig 37.Sistemazione the “Padua”. Note the cross-plowing.


Fig 38a. – A parity of inclination of the wings, the gutter is so much deeper the greater the width of the outlet. In the schematic drawing 1 is represented a small ditch with outlets at 10 meters, taking into account that the inclination is of the 4%, the point A is at 20 cm depth below ground level. Doubling the width of the intake point B in figure 2 is to be at 40 cm depth below ground level. In the first case the outlet can be achieved simply in step backward for every 6-8 sockets. In the second case, for each ditch run a crossover pipe with concrete or plastic.


Fig 38b. The accommodation at-taken 10 meters wide has the following disadvantages: the difficulty of maintaining the right baulatura for tenacious ground that need deep plowing, difficulties for mechanical operations. In areas where the nature of the terrain allows shallow plowing, has the great advantage, for soils with low ex-cultivation, not having to deepen the network of affossatura.


Fig 39. Vegetables with incannucciate that significantly increase the productivity of small vegetable fields compared to crops in open field.


Fig 40. -From the ditch upstream (or diversion ditch) to open defense along the line of watershed results in two binders were crossing the valley.



The opening and maintenance of the canals and ditches Consortium has grown enormously in recent decades thanks to the appearance of mechanical buckets, which have significantly reduced the costs of labor, and thanks to the intervention of consorsi remediation.

Unlike the affossatura capillary main task of the private, was in many cases neglected and devastated, because farmers have adapted to modern techniques in this field and have not benefited from generally of modern mechanical means.

The capillary network is formed by the three of you were accommodation: diversion ditch, were gatherers, ditch valley.


Diversion ditch


The diversion ditch to prevent the entry of water from upstream unit of cultivation. Can be opened by a groove to throw out with the plow. The livelletta a rear blade tilt and self-oscillating makes a valuable work of cleaning up the groove from the turf and reshaping the wall of the ditch. Tilting the blade can be conveniently expanded section of the ditch.

In tracing the ditch, the mark that is the line where this flow, deepening as soon as the plow, you may find that it will take shifts of land to give to ditch a trend of slight slope uniform and sufficient width between the points where the ditches intersect gatherers.

The ditch guard may be replaced by a defense in this case the section of the ditch becomes very wide and the waters may spagliarsi on the whole plan of defense, which can also serve as a lane.I was gatherers

The binders were lead to downstream waters collected upstream from the diversion ditch, run along the slope of the land and therefore must be protected from possible erosion.


Ditch valley


The ditch valley collects water draining unit’s growing and ends up in a ditch or trench main collector. Evidently, in the succession of more contiguous units, it has the function of diversion ditch to the underlying unity.

Having to collect at least part of the water that is drained and the waters that come on the bottom plane of the worked layer, it must be slightly deeper than the depth of processing. For the opening of the capillary network, can also be used trenchers modern rotary and bucket.


Fig 41. – Opening of a ditch.


Via water


Besides the traditional trapezoidal section, the ditches can be given with the bulldozer a very large section wide flaring so that the waters spaglino, as if flowed in flood plains, and so that the ditch may be easily traversed by mechanical means without being damaged. It must be of superior grassing; mowing the ditch becomes the seat of the operation simple and inexpensive.

This section is especially advisable for you were gatherers, since with small transversal works, very economical where there are stones or plants, you can prevent erosion. In the United States are referred to as “water ways”, these pathways along which water flows spagliando.



Natural watersheds


The natural watersheds of a certain size must be complied with. Plowing, since the ditch downstream (in this case comparable to a “via water” natural) is normal or nearly to the direction of the sockets, just lift the plow to the width of the strip, which must remain soda.

E ‘should regularize this strip with suitable tools: scraper, grader, hand tools, so that the flow of water is smooth, and that the grassing is as complete as possible.

The good preservation of these broad bands where waters must spagliare, depends on the regularity and dall’inerbimento.




The crossings of ditches and lines of flow of water can be achieved with baggy or “steps showers”, bumps walled meters wide and slightly inclined to allow the passage during periods of heavy agricultural work, or pipes.

The “step backward” covered with stones, in the most rustic and economically as possible, or the jumper in cement pipes and plastic make traversable ditches, permanently. Realizing the jumper in tubes, in addition to the observations made above for the crossings of defenses, it must rest on the tube a considerable thickness of the ground so that a heavy load is not incrini the tube. The crossings must be preordered carefully to avoid, as often happens, that to cross a ditch it hurts. The ditches must be permanent and efficient even in summer.


I was in tubes



If the ditch must cross a very erodible soil or even sandy, only possible solution is to use pipes with a diameter corresponding to the section of the ditch. Experience shows that putting in good work,


these tubes (here apply the criteria set out above in the section of the descendants) weather resistant. The system of pipes to the system although more expensive, it is cheaper than having to redo the ditch several times, and avoids the harm that the destruction of the ditch traditional proxy.


Techniques underground drainage


The absorption of surface water – rainwater and / or springs – and the absorption of those penetrated into the layer worked in more of the amount necessary to wrap the lumps of earth as a veil, leaving the interspaces for respiration of cultivated plants, is obtained as well as with the creation of the network of ditches and ditches capillaries with different techniques of drainage: drainage techniques are essential for raising water.

The oldest in the opening consist of real trenches parallel and plug that lead the water to a main trench almost rectilinear and perpendicular to the preceding which flows in a ditch or in a water course, and the size of these trenches vary from a width of 70 – 100 cm for a depth varying from a minimum of 50 cm below the level of processing that is workable under the layer with the plow or ripper. These trenches have a depth and then overall average of 100 cm from the ground level. Of these, 100 cm,about half is filled with coarse rags, such

Fig 42. Example of pvc pipe sucked into the underground drainage, while the figure is taken from the text “Drainage Tube” technology in the field of the series curated by Roberto Bartolini published by Ed / farm in 1989.


Example, in the Lazio region where there is plenty of rags or pozzolanic tuff rock, and the last 5 – 10 cm with finer permeable material such as sand and breccino and above, here is the workable land that had previously been shunned by the sides of the bucket arm mounted on the reverse side back of the shovel crawler or wheeled loaders. If the soil is partly due to the mire of springs is preferable to the use of crawler loaders.

For several decades using drown in these trenches specific spiral pipes with many holes and wrapped in a sheath made of coconut fiber. While the drainage system over the years old fails because the machining plane tends to impermeabilizzarsi, the water does not filter and then to drain must reopen the trenches, with the addition of the piping specifications mentioned above, the duration of drainage is considerably higher.

The latest technique of drainage of cultivated land advisable for very large tracts of flat land, consists in setting up the desired depth of a pipe drainage


Fig.43. Posadreni catenary action in the text


“Drainage Tube” Ed / agricultural December 1989.


Using a toolbox on top with a large roll of that PVC pipe connected to a single-shank ripper pulled by a tractor of great power.


Before the installation of the pipes with a diameter of 80 cm, 100 cm and even 120 cm, it is advisable to perfect leveling of fields with preset gradients of one or two percent, or even less depending on the type of soil that you want to drain. These are performed with leveling graders equipped with laser beams that automatically maintain the desired slope.

There are also a tool holder with big rolls of drainage pipe to be fitted with laser beams that are sticking pipes in depth and slope constants.

All underground drainage systems are essential where there are springs, alternative to traditional accommodation of land with the long ditches and affossatura capillary, although costly to the system, they achieve several advantages: they eliminate the ditches 1, increase the cultivable area, allow processing on floor no more baulature and eliminate the waters which often stop in scoline after the rain has stopped, thus avoiding the formation of harmful insects to cultivated plants and humans.


Fig 44. List of companies specializing in construction of drainage facilities tubular

Patterns of drainage system from the text “drainage


Tubular “Ed / agricultural December 1989.



(1) The ditches are the side ditches of different types of outlets baulate.





Given that everything that has been said sull’affossatura capillary can also be applied to the hills at a slight slope, we turn to the different systems of tillage in the hills.

With reference to the degree of slope and erodibility, the hilly terrain we can divide them into three categories: very steep terrain with slopes greater than 23-25 ​​percent, steep terrain with slopes of between 15 and 30 percent on average and land with steep lower slopes.

The destination of the crop land is very steep the wood and the lawn stable, so as to avoid the crop in rotation (except specific cases which we shall hereinafter) and to obtain the stabilization of the soil due to the permanent vegetation.

Also in this case the land, especially those that have been processed in an indiscriminate manner for crops in rotation and then left uncultivated, require a minimum of stabilization works (defenses spaced p. 46).

When specific ecological reasons, or simply subjective reasons to counsel the planting of tree crops or valuable specialized crops in rotation, must radically change shape and position of the foot, creating a terrace close to defenses, as described in the preceding paragraphs of defenses – terraces, in the chapter “Techniques of soil conservation of the mountain”: thus stops the length and speed of descent of the water flow along the hill slopes.

In very steep terrain you have to work only the locations of the defenses, leaving along the line of intersection between the slope of the mountain and the headquarters of the defense enough space, shaded and grassy, ​​for the flow of water and leaving the cliffs between defense and defense to permanent pasture.


Fig 45. – Flap hilly stabilized with the opening of a number of defenses.


Processing of the defenses


The “defenses” are basically flat land: machining, starting from plowing, presents no difficulty. E ‘to remember that at the time of the creation of a system of defenses, just for the purposes of processing and other mechanical operations, the fittings are made sharp turns wide enough for the transit of mechanical means.

The headquarters of defense ara with only one hand from the outside and that is “to throw out.” The first track to be done in the reverse direction, “to throw in” to prevent the fall of the land along the escarpment (the groove shoulder). The second groove closes the first. Plowing with polivomeri, the first two paths overlap the side of the defense.

Plowing outside inwards accentuates the contropendenza and this is well within certain limits.

Be careful not to damage the crossings and the steps showers. Accentuated the counter weights can be plowed in the reverse direction, ie from inside to outside, keeping the counter weights.


Fig 47. – Brim hilly interrupted by a series of defenses sectional views.


Land steep



For steep terrain, before we give a nod of traditional accommodation, then describe the solution sistematoria, and for our land and for the best use of bulldozers and graders and the simplicity of implementation appears to us the best.


Accommodation in circumvatingterraces


The furrows are opened in the direction slightly inclined (1-2%) compared to the contour lines.

The ditches are dug upstream and downstream parallel to the grooves with equal vertical distance between them. The water collected in the ditches is fed into a watercourse or stream, and in this case it was hanging all in one direction. But water can also be carried downstream by making meander. In the accommodation in circumvatingterraces when the slope exceeds 8% of the land must overthrow the land in the valley and then it is inevitable the formation of the chasm, and the field tends to become horizontal. And ‘advisable to limit the raising of the ridge suspending at some point the overthrow Slice downstream and adopting instead the overthrow alternating with “upstream and downstream”.

With regard to accommodations “plug-in” and “cavalcapoggio” while we recognize their goodness and the technical contribution to the development of Italian agriculture in the past, we believe that their strong cost of setting up and maintenance it has decreed a immediate early and late.



Accommodation in defense-terraces


We are not inclined to traditional accommodation, be-cause too complex and expensive, as well as rich was a-perte.

These, in addition to being an obstacle crossing of mechanical equipment, are subject to runoff and erosion, when they follow the direction of slope, or landfill, if they follow the direction of the contour lines. In any case are easily destructible with the simple tillage.

We get the subdivision of the water and their slowdown with the opening of defenses slightly inclined with respect to the contour lines and spaced in relation to the inclination of the ground and all’erodibilità the aquifer.


They can be made in connection with each other and with any bridle and then you will need an engineer, or independent, in which case you will need to follow the procedures described in part: “Works of defense and soil stabilization.”

The locations of the defenses, working by ditches and possibly by narrow streets, you had better leave them boiled, while the bands between defense and defense to plow Girapoggio and also incli. The plowing incli or oblique to the direction of slope is always possible if it is found that for sufficiently wide bands runoff does not occur in this case the defenses can serve as headlands, with the obvious advantage of eliminating the danger of bending of sloping terrain.

The locations of the defenses unlike the waves of the “contour” American form inclined planes, where the waters flow spagliandosi in times of intense rainfall without the possibility of stagnation in rain ceased.

The Fallow circumvatingterraces is made to a single hand with return empty, alternately “to throw out” to the valley and to “throw in” upstream, so that the bands degrade to the work plans of the defenses seamless.

The maintenance of defenses will be to maintain the inclined plane at the right slope, 4-6%, with passages of bulldozer or motor grader and keep open and free from any accumulation of earth and shrubs strip of intersection where you convey the waters that are exodus in the wells, as described in paragraph wells. (Pg. 59,61)


Fig 47. – Plan of the accommodation in defenses filleted. Notice how the defenses can be operated by roads.

Fig 48. – Defenses filleted.


Fig 49. – Accommodation on defense: The drawing in the headquarters of the defense, except the strip along the line of watershed, it worked. In the second drawing is not worked in this case as well as from the ditch, it acts as a road.


Gently sloping land

The direction of plowing is usually that of maximum slope. The first groove or the first path, if it is a polivomero, goes straight fact leaning to a predetermined line that can be a lateral boundary of the unit of cultivation, when this is located along the direction of slope. The lateral boundary can also be given by a ditch wallet still to be realized, in this case it will open along the direction of maximum slope of the ground and it will lean all other furrows straight and parallel to the other extreme natural primo.Se field will be a triangle, you should shorten the course of plowing at each step and maintain the parallelism of the grooves.

The straightness and parallelism along the direction of slope of the ground facilitate the draining of excess water penetrated along the bottom plane.

The bottom plane is the plane that divides the processed surface from non-worked.

From the foregoing, it is evident that the slope of the land should be light, such that, to avoid the realization dell’affossatura scarracciamenti is sufficient capillary.




Depth of plowing In the hills as in the plains the depth of plowing is very delicate subject on which you can not give fixed rules, but only criteria that experience and common sense can then validate.

The depth of plowing, that has spread with the introduction of the tractors, resulted in soils the great advantage of the breaking of crostone processing.

The plowing surface made from animals always at the same depth, with the passing of centuries and the years had caused a strong hardening of the machining plane (crust of processing), that does not allow the deepening of water and roots.

The disadvantage of the plowing depth is to bring the surface earthy material mixed with rock not fertile, that disadvantage can be eliminated, however, with the tools discissori (4). They are not recommended as the break-ins with the “plows dumper” species in soils where the humus layer of soil is low, unless for special reasons (the planting of orchards). It will be very useful, in this case, indeed almost essential, a good organic fertilizer.

Shallow plowing in those lands is not very tough, and that is a low content of clay, accompanied by tillerature (details harrowing performed by harrow with teeth that work to raise) that can actually have an impact on the bottom shelf and form a single whole ‘one soft and ventilated between the two layers divided by the bottom plane, do achieve several advantages.

First, cost economics plowing because you can use polivomeri, and second, it stays on the surface the soil bacteriologically most gifted.

(4) The instruments discissori churning up the soil deeply without bringing it to the surface, as is the case with plows dumper. Are formed by a tool-holding transverse to which are attached to the tooth bodies, very robust, varies in shape, arranged in a spade plate, a wedge, a knife, a spear.

The mole plow and the subsoiler plows are mixed discissori and tilting: up to 20 cm spilling the ground, up to 50 cm and over the fessurano so as to achieve an effective action of draining and promote the penetration of the radical.

The weeders rippers only cause of action rupture and split the deep layers. They also feature common to harrow teeth, clear the land bringing to the surface rocks and stumps.



If you are unable to achieve a regularity of the bottom such as to allow the draining of the water penetrated along it in excess, Clod and the fracture mechanics of the deep layers, can make to achieve a similar result of drainage.


Ripping land


The Ripping and the manuring of the land can be considered as transactions of settlement of land because they increase the ability of wetting layer worked and greatly reduce the erosive force of rain water that is higher in soils poor in organic matter and soils that wet excessively because rainwater can not penetrate below the sole or crust of processing, ie, the plane that is formed waterproof to 30 or 40 cm in depth after repeated plowing to the same depth.

With Ripping you have a crack in the crust of processing formed in previous years and the layer semiroccioso below.

In the summer period after the collection of the product sown the previous year, the biennial rotation practiced normally, before the sowing of wheat, deep plowing to a plow also known as burglary or semiscasso depending on the depth, in recent years has been replaced by Ripping.

The Ripping is a process of the land than the traditional deep plowing has the following advantage: while the plow with the plow, especially in summer, when the soil is dry, it has the reversal of the plate with the drawback of bringing to the surface the less fertile land and in depth, the most fertile, with Ripping breaks the crust of machining stirring up the deep layers of the soil and the layers semirock below, and the impact ripper below the crust of working without upsetting the turf and leaving the most fertile soil on the surface; should nevertheless be made shallow plowing with plows to clear polivomeri the seeds of weeds and aerate the layer worked better, especially for organic farming.

The Ripping can be considered a technique of reduction, and in some years not particularly rainy, elimination of the erosion of sloping land because it greatly increases the absorption capacity of rainwater from the soil without causing excess imbibition; fact only when the soil is not excessively wet is more resistant to drag slides down to the valley and forming erosions capillaries.


(1) With the ripper to 1-2 or more teeth do not have the overthrow of the processed surface, but only the slit with deep teeth scratches even the crust of processing.




The work of manuring involves removing manure from the manure mature (1), carry it and spread it on the fields.

The mature manure is obtained by depositing the manure of animals mixed with straw in the compost heap for a period of about a year in order to obtain the maceration of the straw: it is normal practice to divide the compost heap into two parts so as to prevent the fresh manure so that it overlays on manure previously filed.

In periods separated by one year older pile is picked up and deposited on the field as he continues to fill the part that will be picked up the following year.

If the rainfall is scarce, it is appropriate to accelerate the maturation watering with water jets artificial.

For picking, loading and distribution businesses exist on the fields of contractors who carry out such work, unless the company itself breeding is of such magnitude as to be equipped on whose behalf the necessary tools are wheeled tractor equipped with a reverse arm with a special bucket teeth long and trailers equipped with specific tools for shredding and spreading manure at the same distance.


The manuring is almost essential for those lands from which was removed the mantle surface humus, due to work of leveling or for the construction of terraces.

In addition, the hilly terrain sloping, with letamazioni periodic with rippature, acquire capacity to absorb rainwater in the deep layers and reducing the flowing surface water, they become much less erodible than the tilled soil to equal slope but not letamati and not ripped. In addition, all lands are well arranged and letamati greatly increase the production capacity in a natural and not harmful to human health as may occur due to the increase in productivity due to excessive chemical fertilization.


(1) The mature manure is formed from the manure of cows or horses or sheep, mixed with straw and manure deposited in for a period not less than one year.


Additional works


With additional works not break the clods left after plowing, the soil surface should not be crushed too. Shredding surface of soil particles causes the crust, on which the water will begin to flow causing erosion without being able to penetrate.

Otherwise, leaving the surface of a Lumps some consistency, these resist the disintegrating force of the rain, at least for the short period in which they will be sufficiently developed plants. In certain climates, where rainfall is low, the formation of the surface crust, making waterproof the surface of the soil, may jeopardize the cultivation.

The crushing of clods is for work of disc harrows and teeth, the first go under the name of “morgan”, very common in tenacious ground, so that the term of harrowing has been replaced by that of morganatura, among the latter is the predominant the Tyller.

The uniform wetting layer worked, an indispensable condition for the best utilization by plants of the water contained in the soil, can not be obtained with only morganatura that breaks the clods on the surface, but must be accompanied by tillettatura that crumbling clods also in depth. If after plowing, no loose soil clods too large and compact, it is preferable harrowing only with the Tyller that tends to lift and aerate the soil differently from morgan that tends to compress.




The costs and benefits of the interventions described are evaluated on a case-by-case: certainly part of these works, such as the protection of the descendants and those of bioengineering do not give income but serve to preserve the stability of the soil and reduce flood damage. Such work may be carried out by volunteers cash-integrated or unemployed will receive benefits established by law and prison volunteers with due caution.

The works of terracing and reforestation do not produce immediate benefits, but serve to stabilize the soil, to beautify the landscape and to reward those who perform under the supervision of qualified experts.

At this time when many jobs are estrinsecano in the context of virtual reality, it is important to work in a physical reality to repair and rebuild dry stone walls, to fill them with land reform and narrow terraces workable with hand tools and produce food.

In some bays the coasts of Liguria, as in the Calabrian coast in front of Sicily, until a few years ago you could see the terraced walls almost to the sea, most likely built in the aftermath of fall of the Roman Empire to defend themselves against the Saracens.

The cost to rebuild these terraces to cultivate and should not be considered from the standpoint of economic but social and landscaping.

The works of defense of the soil from erosion, landslides, floods such as the refurbishment of the unit of cultivation for the drainage of fields, enhance the fertility and land productivity in the short and in the long run not in sufficient quantity to repay the considerable additional costs compared to the costs for processing normal. In certain circumstances, such as in hilly terrain, the works that reduce or eliminate erosion, such as terracing, reduce the arable land in the same area, but in addition to maintaining the surface layer of humus soil cultivated, prevent, or at least reduced in a manner incisive, causabili flood damage, damage that can lead to the destruction of buildings and artifacts.

Some of these works such as retention basins, ditches spillways, etc.., Must be implemented by peripheral such as land reclamation, rural districts, the other river basin authorities, such as the expansion of large basins to prevent flooding and the breaking of the levees downstream of the rivers themselves are constructed at the expense of the State, other then as the network of ditches, terraces, small artificial lakes, should be encouraged by contributions in the State, through the regions, and in the European Community. For example, the Structural Funds EEC that you can not spend, will have to be spent through projects such easily adaptable to different areas that are most in need of protection works to the soil and drainage.

Reconfirm the ‘hope that the R.A.I. and national and local television to inform the ‘public opinion, even with Eurovision program and broadcast worldwide




Alinari Ernesto – The Crete Senesi. “Annual Agricultural Institute-Forest”, Vol III, Florence, 1930. Ambrosini and Vittorio Salvatore Martino-New guidelines for the settlement of land in the hills. Ed “The gauntlet”, Benevento, 1953.

Leftovers Henry – The importance of the settlement of land cultivated. Tip. Scotini, Trento, 1930.

Bailey R. Y. – Kudzu for erosion control in the southeast. “Farmers’ Bulletin”, no. 1840 – U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Beasley R.P. and Wooley, J.C. – Farm water management for


erosion control. Columbia, Mo., Lucas, 1957.


Beasley R.P. – A new method of terracing. Columbia, Missouri


Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 699, 1958.


Bennett H.H. – Soil conservation. New York, McGraw Hill,




Bennett H.H. et al. Land conditions in Venezuela and their relations to agriculture and human welfare. Washington, D.C., U.S. Soil Conservation Service. E.S.R. 90.

John Bottomley. Baptist – A new forage Italian: the “Phalaris tuberosa.” L. Tip. of the Book, Pavia, 1952. Calzecchi Onesti – Accommodation and soil fertility in the hills. R.E.D.A., 1954.


Calzecchi Onesti – Accommodation in a hill. R.E.D.A., 1953. Cancellara Edward – Plumbing technique. R.E.D.A., 1953. Carlton Earl P. – Terraces Stop “Wet Feet” in Ohioan’s Peach, by “Soil Conservation”, Volume XXIX, 1963-64. National Research Council – Conference on Soil. Suppl. to “scientific research”, Milan, 1952. Cumberland, K.B. – Soil erosion in New Zealand. Wellington, Soil Conservation and Rivers Control Council.

Rey S. Decker – Soil Mechanics Test Guide Design of Earth


Structures, by “Soil Conservation”, Vol XXIX, 1963-64.


Del Pelo Pardi Thomas – The arrangement of the ground. Rome,




Felix E. Edwards – Construction of terraces with special reference to the design construction and testing of a V-shaped drag terracer. Ames, Iowa State University Library (unpublished thesis). 1939.

F.A.O. – Soil Conservation – an International Study.


Washington, U.S.A., 1948.


F.A.O. – Prospects for the drainage of clay soil. 1995. F.A.O. – Mesures de terrain de l’erosion and de l’écoulement des eaux de surface. 1996.

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procédures. 1996.


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Tubular drainage of “The Special Land and Life” Ed / agricultural December 1989

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Lifting of water for rural William Tower


Ed / agricultural 1989.













Rough indication






Failure to Inform of the Mass Media



Concrete slabs of river beds



Widening and deepening of river beds



Importance of radio and television programs and documentaries



Organization of Rural Districts









Works by preventing erosion, landslides and

flood 13


Stabilization 13


Landslides 14


Erosion 16


Mountain basins 19


The bridle 23


Techniques execution of locks and dams in compressed earth for the construction of

ponds or tank rolling, ponds

artificial 24


Spillway 30


Maintenance of dams and spillways 32



Completion of the dam 32


Dimensions of the dams



Humidity of the land used



Booms in compressed earth for the construction of artificial lakes and ponds tank




Emptying of ponds tank



Concluding remarks of dams and artificial lakes



Defenses – terraces



How can I implement defenses – terraces



Grassing of the defenses 45


Functions of the defenses – terraces connected 48


Manholes and crossings 53


Descendants 56


Was to contain 57


Large terraces on the hills gently sloping 61


Bioengineering techniques 64


Methods and materials proposed from engineering

naturalistic 66






Works of art 67


Moving earth 68









Flood defense works to be built in the valley 73



Basins expansion 73








I was spillways



Flooded naturally

– Flooding


Rotten to the rice paddies 82








Protective embankments and reconstruction








Works and interventions for the ordinary and extraordinary maintenance of secondary roads




Farm roads



Construction of the road in compressed earth



Hand showers



Roads and vicinal interpoderale



Maintenance of unpaved roads 99


Discipline of water 99


Implementation of the bumps 100


Contouring work terraced donkey 103


Viability interpoderale hilly 104


Maintenance of crossings sottostradali 107


Forming consortia Road 108


Formalities and mandatory consortia Road 109






Regularization surface soil 121


Criteria for accommodation for land in the plains 127


Affossatura capillary 135


Diversion ditch 135


I was gatherers 136


Ditch valley 137


Via water 138


Natural watersheds 138


Crossings 139


If I were 140 tubes


Techniques underground drainage 141




Processing of the defenses 149


Land steep 151


Accommodation in Girapoggio 151


Accommodation in defenses – terraces 152


Land gently sloping 157




Depth of plowing



Ripping land






Additional works







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